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THE V TEMPLE 
vBIBLE >• 



The Frontispiece is from a photograph by Alinari of Professor 
Antonio Ciseri's great painting in the Church of Santa 
Felicitay Florence, representing ' The Slaughter of the Seven 
Martyr Children and their Mother ' at Jerusalem, by order of 
Antiochus, for refusing to defile themsel-ves by eating sivine's 
fiesh. 



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-S^HJL-XDGLPH 









66COND BOOKS 

MACCABEE5) 




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V 



•PHIL'ADeLPHIA ::? BI-IPPINCOTT C9» 



* Slowly the Bible of the race is writ, 
And not on paper leaves nor leaves of stone ; 
Each age, each kindred adds a verse to it, 
Texts of despair or hope, of joy or moan. 
While swings the sea, while mists the mountain shroud, 
While thunder's surges burst on cliffs of cloud, 
Still at the prophets' feet the nations sit.' 

J. R. LOWFLL. 

' The Story of the Maccabees is inspiring enough to be 
inspired.' Coliridge. 




Introduction 



I.— THE MACCAB.EAN MOVEMENT 

The Name Maccabee. Originally the surname of Judas, 
third son of Mattathias (l Mace. ii. 4, 66), the term Maccabee 
(Greek, Makkabaios) was afterwards applied to his kinsmen 
generally, and even to all who resisted the tyranny of the Syrian 
kings. It was particularly associated with the seven brethren, 
the story of whose cruel martyrdom under Antiochus Epiphanes 
is told in 2 Mace. vi. , vii. , and whose mother is accordingly 
designated by early Christian writers ' the mother of the Mac- 
cabees.' Ultimately, as used, ^.^.,in the titles of the Third and 
Fourth Books of Maccabees, the name came to have merely an 
ideal significance. In modem usage it denotes only the sons 
and descendants of Mattathias. As, however, the great-grand- 
father of this heroic priest was called Hasmon (Greek, Asa- 
monaios), the family is more properly, and in Jewish literature 
more frequently, designated by the name of Hasmonaeans than 
by that of Maccabees. 

Founding on the Latin Mcuhabceiis, which, however, Jerome 
probably adopted as the spelling current in his day, some would 
derive the word from the Hebrew wa-('^(5? = ' extinguisher' (of 
strife, cp. Isa. xliii. 17). But if Maccabee (maqqclbt) is the 
original form of the name, the most probable derivation is from 
the Aramaean fnagqdbd=^\ia.xamtr.' On this theory the sur- 
name ' hammerer ' was applied to Judas either as a distinctive title 



Introduction. ^ The Books 

pure and simple, or symbolically, as in the inscription on his 
tomb in Westminster Abbey Edward I. is called ' Scotorum 
malleus.^ 

What led to the Maccabaean Revolt. The reign of 
Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, King of Syria (B.C. 175-164), marks 
a critical period in Jewish history. By this time the spell of 
Hellenism had fallen even upon Judoea ; the upper classes 
especially were bound by it. Aided by this apostate party, 
Epiphanes endeavoured to force the adoption of Greek manners 
and customs, and to destroy Judaism root and branch. It was 
this ill-advised attempt that caused the Maccabaean revolt. 

Even before Antiochus interfered, the Hellenisers were active 
in Judtea. They were opposed by the Hasidaeans (Hebrew, 
Hastdim = ihe 'pious'), who organised themselves in defence of 
the Law. The Hellenistic faction was led by Joshua, brother of 
tlie worthy high priest Onias III. This man Grecised his name 
into Jason, and bargained with Antiochus to have the high-priest- 
hood conferred upon himself, and to be allowed to build a 
gymnasium hard by the Temple. After holding office for three 
years (174-171), he was supplanted by Menelaus, a Benjamite, 
who renounced Judaism altogether, and obtained reinforcements 
of Syrian soldiers to suppress the refractory Jason. The latter, 
encouraged by a false rumour that Antiochus had died in Egypt, 
marched upon Jerusalem, and forced his rival to retire into the 
fortress. 

The Syrian despot interpreted these events as a Jewish re- 
bellion, and on his arrival at Jerusalem in 170 followed up the 
flight of Jason by robbing and desecrating the Temple, and by 
slaughtering many of the inhabitants. Two years later he seni 



of Maccabees ^ introduction. 

his general Appollonius to lay waste the defenceless city, and 
from this date a Syrian garrison occupied the citadel (Acta) 
overlooking the Temple. The distinctive rites of Judaism were 
prohibited under pain of death. Every copy of the Law that 
could be found was burned. The Temple was dedicated to 
Zeus, and an idol altar (' the abomination of desolation,' 
Dan. ix. 27) was erected over the altar of Jehovah. 

But Antiochus had overreached himself. Even Hellenising 
Jews cast in their lot with those who were resolved to die rather 
than abandon their religion, and in these circumstances coercion 
was vain. The impending crisis was precipitated by an imperial 
order that heathen sacrifices should be offered in every township 
of Palestine. Commissioners were appointed to see that all the 
citizens conformed. The die was cast at Modin, between Joppa 
and Jerusalem. Mattathias, an aged priest whom the persecution 
had driven from the capital, was ordered to offer the first 
heathen sacrifice, and when on his refusal another Jew was 
about to comply, Mattathias slew both the renegade and the 
king's officer, and tore down the altar. With his five sons — 
John, Simon, Judas, Eleazar and Jonathan— he then fled into 
the mountains, and raised the standard of revolt. A thousand 
Sabbatarians tamely let themselves be butchered in the wilder- 
ness, but Mattathias decided to meet force with force even upon 
the Sabbath. The Hasidseans and many others having rallied 
round him, he began an open campaign against heathenism. 
Jewish rites were revived, pagan altars demolished, and 
apostates slain. Mattathias died in B.C. 166, after charging his 
sons to lay down their lives for the Law and Covenant of their 
fathers. The leadership of the movement he bequeathed to 
Judas Maccabseus. 



Introduction. "^ The Books 

Wars of the Maccabees — (i) The Battles of Judas 
(166-161). In Judas the Maccabsean movement had an ideal 
leader. His fame was at once established by his defeat of the 
Syrian generals, ApoUonius and Seron. In vain did Antiochus 
commission his kinsman Lysias to use half of the imperial army 
for the extirpation of the Jews. Gorgias, who commanded in 
Philistia, was reinforced by large contingents of troops under 
experienced generals, but Judas worsted them all. The year 
following (165-164) he routed Lysias himself at Bethzur, and 
forced him to withdraw to Antioch. 

Meanwhile opportunity was taken to restore the Temple wor- 
ship. On the 25th Chislev (December) 165, the third anniversary 
of its first defilement, the Temple was reconsecrated by the 
offering of the legal sacrifices. For eight days the Feast of the 
Dedication (John x. 22) of the new altar was joyfully celebrated. 
Thereafter Judas fortified the Temple mount and the frontier 
town of Bethzur. These events closed the first stage in the 
history of the Maccabsean Wars. It is a record of unbroken 
victory. 

The success of the Maccabees was galling to their heathen 
neighbours, including Edom and Ammon, and they had now to 
give them battle, as well as march to the relief of Jews shut up 
in the fortresses of Galilee and Gilead. Both campaigns were 
successful. Meanwhile Joseph and Azariah, 'captains of the 
garrison,' foolishly attacked Gorgias, and lost 2000 men. This 
disaster was so far retrieved, however, by fresh victories of Judas 
over the Philistines. 

In B.C. 164 Antiochus died in the Far East. He had ap- 
pointed Philip, one "of his ' Friends,' guardian to the minor 
Antiochus V, ; but Lysias set up the latter as king with the 



of Maccabees 5^ Introdoction. 

surname of Eupator. The j'ear after, Judas laid siege to the 
Acra, and the Syrian garrison had to seek help from Anlioch. 
With a huge army Lysias and his ward besieged Bethzur. Judas 
advanced to meet them, but at Bethzacharias his troops were 
beaten, and his brother Eleazar perished. After reducing 
Bethzur, the Syrians had almost captured Mount Sion also, when 
suddenly, in order to checkmate Philip, who had seized Antioch, 
Lysias gave to the Jews by treaty the religious freedom for 
which they had so strenuously fought. This concession marks 
the second stage in the history of the Maccabsean rising. 
Hitherto it had been a movement in defence of the Jewish 
religion ; henceforth it became a war of independence. 

In B.C. 162 Demetrius I., the real heir to the Syrian throne, 
who had been kept as a hostage at Rome, put Lysias and 
Eupator to death. The Greek party in Jud?ea induced the new 
sovereign to send an army under Bacchides to install the un- 
godly Alcimus as high priest. Content to have an Aaronic 
priest, the Hasidjeans acquiesced in the Syrian supremacy, but 
sixty of them, were perfidiously slain in one day. With the 
departure of Bacchides, Judas soon made things impossible for 
Alcimus. Demetrius accordingly sent a fresh army under 
Nicanor, who was repulsed first at Capharsalama, and then at 
Adasa, where he fell. 

At this juncture Judas formed a treaty with Rome, but it 
resulted only in a belated warning to Demetrius, who had 
meanwhile dispatched another army to Judaea under Bacchides. 
Judas lay at Elasa with only 3000 men, of whom all but 800 
deserted him rather than face the unequal conflict. He and his 
little band having been overborne by sheer weight of numbers, 
his body was secured by his brothers and buried in the family 



Introduction. ^ The Books 

grave at Modin {i6i). If the task in which Judas was engaged 
was in the nature of things impracticable, he had at least dis- 
played a patriotism, a generalship and a heroism of which his 
race may be justly proud. 

(2.) Leadership of Jonathan, the High Priest (161-143). 
Having been chosen successor to Judas, Jonathan at first deemed 
it prudent to evade Bacchides, and withdrew to the wilderness 
of Tekoah. On his return, however, from a punitive expedition 
against a robber clan at Medaba for the loss of his eldest brother 
John, he narrowly escaped falling into the hands of the Syrians. 
Alcimus died in B.C. 160, and Bacchides left Palestine. In two 
years the Maccabees became so strong that the Greek party had 
again to invoke his aid. After a brief campaign, in which the 
Syrians suffered most, their general accepted Jonathan's pro- 
posals for peace. For four years thereafter the latter dwelt at 
Michmash, 'judging' the people and repressing the Hellen- 
isers. 

From B.C. 153, when Alexander Balas and Demetrius I. were 
rival claimants for the Syrian crown, Jonathan astutely availed 
himself of the political situation to advance his own interests. 
In consideration of his support Balas appointed him high priest, 
besides conferring on him other honours. When afterwards in 
a battle between the rivals Demetrius fell, the victorious Balas 
did not forget his faithful ally. At Ptolemais, where in B.C. 150 
he married the Egyptian Cleopatra, Balas received him with 
great favour, and * made him a captain and governor of a pro- 
vince.' When, three years later, Demetrius II. appeared as the 
avenger of his father, his adherent, Apollonius, governor of Cocle- 
Syria, was defeated by Jonathan, whom Balas again rewarded. 



of Maccabees 5e» Introduction. 

The latter, however, lost the support of his father-in-law, 
Ptolemy Philometor, and having been routed in battle fled to 
Arabia, where he was assassinated. Thus in B.C. 145 Demetrius 
II. became king. 

Although he now laid siege to the Acra, Jonathan's diplomacy 
secured for him the favour of Demetrius II. With the help of 
the Jewish high priest, who obtained a promise that the Syrian 
garrisons would be removed from Judjea, Demetrius succeeded 
in quelling an insurrection led by Tryphon, a former general of 
Balas ; but as this promise was not kept, Jonathan went over 
to the side of Tryphon. After subduing the region between 
Jerusalem and Damascus, he defeated the generals of Demetrius 
on the plain of Hazor. But as in concert with his brother Simon 
he steadily strengthened the position of Judssa while ostensibly 
furthering the interests of Syria, Tryphon's distrust was aroused. 
Cunning as he was, Jonathan let himself be artfully decoyed into 
Ptolemais, where he was taken prisoner and had his escort slain. 
Thus ended the active career of Jonathan. Although not pos- 
sessing Judas's nobility of character, he had shrewdly secured for 
his party the upper hand in Judaea. 

(3. ) Administration of Simon, High Priest and Ethnarch 
(143-135;. At this crisis Simon, last surviving son of Mattathias, 
naturally took the reins. Immediately he fortified Jerusalem and 
garrisoned Joppa. Tryphon soon entered Jud?ea with Jonathan 
as his prisoner, but was intercepted by Simon at Adida. After 
some false dealing in regard to Jonathan's release, Tryphon 
tried hard to reach Jerusalem, but was effectually checkmated 
by Simon. He then advanced into Gilead, and at Bascama 
revenged himself by slaying his prisoner. Simon recovered the 



Introduction. ^ The Books 

body of Jonathan and buried it at Modin, where he erected a 
magnificent family monument. 

At this stage Tryphon slew his ward and usurped the Syrian 
crown. As Demetrius II. was also at variance with the Par- 
thians, Simon demanded and obtained from him by treaty 
absolute immunity from tribute. Thus was ' the yoke of the 
heathen taken away,' and Jewish political independence at last 
attained. Simon now captured in succession the fortresses of 
Gazara and Jerusalem, and entered the latter in triumph on the 
23rd lyar (May) B.C. 142. 

The next year Simon was formally appointed commander, 
high priest and ethnarch, and as these offices were made heredi- 
tary in his family, he became the founder of the Hasmonaean 
dynasty. The first year of his reign was signalised as the com- 
mencement of a new era, and the independence of his rule was 
further attested by the issue of a Jewish coinage and by the 
renewal of the alliance with Rome and Sparta. In the adminis- 
tration of the internal affairs of Judzea Simon showed rare skill 
and wisdom. Under his benign sway the country enjoyed a 
period of moral and material prosperity unparalleled in its post- 
Exilic history. 

In B.C. 139 Antiochus VII., Sidetes, defeated Tryphon at 
Dora, and reversed his former friendly attitude towards the Jews. 
The Syrian troops, however, under Cendeb?eus, were routed 
near Modin by Judas and John, two of Simon's sons, and for 
three years thereafter nothing disturbed the peaceful develop- 
ment of his kingdom. But in B.C. 135 he was treacherously 
slain by Ptolemy, his son-in-law, who coveted the supreme power. 
He was succeeded, however, by his son, John Hyrcanus, who 
contrived to elude the assassin. 



of Maccabees 5^ latroduction. 



For more than a generation the sons of Mattathias had nobly 
upheld the flag of religious liberty. One by one they died for 
their faith and their country. Their valour rekindled the 
national spirit of Israel, and inspired the Jews with a new sense 
of the worth of their religion. 



II.— THE FIRST BOOK OF MACCABEES 

I Mace, is our principal authority for the history of the period 
B.C. 175-135, i.e., of the forty years from the accession of 
Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, to the death of Simon, 

Contents and Style. The book begins with a short refer- 
ence to the history of the Greek supremacy in Palestine from 
the time of Alexander the Great and the partition of his empire 
among his successors (i. 1-9). After this the writer narrates 
the circumstances attending the rise of the Maccabsean revolt, 
describing in detail the attempt of Epiphanes, in concert with 
the Greek party in Judaea, forcibly to substitute paganism for the 
Jewish religion (i. 10-64). Then follows in chap. ii. an account 
of the dramatic episode enacted at Modin, and of the first 
collision with the Syrians. While the Maccaboean movement 
was yet in its infancy Mattathias died (ii. 66), and the rest of 
the book deals with the brilliant, heroic and successful struggle 
carried on by his sons, first for religious freedom (vi. 60), and 
afterwards for civil independence (xiii. 41). The narrative traces 
minutely the course of events under the successive leadership of 
the three brothers, Judas (iii. l-ix. 22), Jonathan (ix. 23-xii. 
53), and Simon (xiii. i-xvi. 18), tells how Simon's son, John 
Hyrcanus, circumvented the plot by which his father and his 



Introduction. '^^ The Books 

two brothers were cut off (xvi. 19-22), and concludes with a 
buoyant allusion to the annals of his high priesthood (xvi. 23 f.). 
The main interest of the book centres round the personality and 
valorous deeds of its hero, Judas Maccabseus, and the section 
which treats of his leadership is naturally characterised by excep- 
tional fulness of detail. 

Style. The style is that of simple prose narrative, and closely 
resembles that of the Old Testament historical books, of which 
indeed it contains many obvious reminiscences. Singularly free 
from literary devices and rhetorical embellishments, it commends 
itself as a plain statement of facts. The writer's one object is to 
give a faithful picture of the actual historical developments of 
the period in the order in which they occurred. While in full 
sympathy with the movement of which he is the chronicler, he 
rarely introduces an opinion of his own. The facts are allowed 
to speak for themselves. Occasionally, however, the language 
is charged with passion (i. 25 ff. , ix. 10, etc.), and even rises into 
poetry (ii. 7-13, iii. 3-9, etc.). 

Original Language and Unity. There is both external and 
internal evidence to show that I Mace, was originally written in 
Hebrew. Origen (t254) mentions its Semitic title, and Jerome 
(f42o) says expressly : ' The First Book of Maccabees I found in 
Hebrew ; the Second is Greek, as can be proved from its very 
style.' The work carries in itself the confirmation of this 
testimony. In spite of its many affinities with the Septuagint, 
the general structure of the sentences and the Hebraistic char- 
acter of the Greek stamp it as a translation. As examples of 
the retention of Hebrew idioms it may suffice to adduce the 



of Maccabees ^ Introduction. 

following : — ' After two full years,' lit. , years of days (i. 29) ; 
'neither suffered they the sinner to triumph,' lit., gave they a 
horn to the sinner (ii. 48) ; 'came not any more,' lit., added not 
to come any more (ix. 72). Several obscurities in the Greek 
text are best explained on the supposition that they are mis- 
translations from the Hebrew (i. 28, ii. 8, xiv. 5, 28). More- 
over, no other Greek work seems to have been issued in Palestine 
at this period. The only really disputable point in this con- 
nection is whether the original language was classical Hebrew 
or Palestinian Aramaic, and such peculiarities of the diction as 
have survived the process of translation decidedly favour the 
former alternative. Although no longer the vernacular of 
Palestine, classical Hebrew was still the recognised medium of 
literary expression. 

The general uniformity of the style, the absence throughout 
of the Divine name, and the precise chronology of the work as a 
whole, have usually been regarded as sufficient evidence that it is 
not of composite authorship. Some scholars, however, maintain 
that the closing section (chaps, xiv.-xvi.) is a later addition 
unknown to Josephus. The extreme brevity of the account of 
Simon's reign fits this theory, but can scarcely be regarded as 
decisive. It has also been held that these closing chapters form 
the principal section of the book, and that what precedes is 
merely of the nature of introduction, but there is no good ground 
for this view. 

Date and Authorship. If xiv. 15 marks the original close 
of the book, it may have been composed during the reign of John 
Hyrcanus (b.c. 135-105). But the reference to the chronicles of 
his high-priesthood in xvi. 23 seems to imply that Hyrcanus was 



Introduction. ^ The Books 

no longer alive, in which case the date of composition must have 
been subsequent to B.C. 105. What is said (xiii. 30) about the 
family tomb erected at Modin in B.C. 143, and the poetic de- 
scription of Simon's age in xiv. 4ff., also convey the impression 
that the writer is alluding to the distant past. On the other 
hand, it is clear from the author's friendly tone in speaking of 
the Romans (chap. viii. ) that the book must have been written 
before the conquest of Jerusalem by Pompey in B.C. 63. It was 
therefore composed during the period B.C. 105-64. The date 
cannot be more definitely determined, but as the reference to 
the annals of Hyrcanus suggests that some time had elapsed 
since his death the probability is that our author wrote during 
the first decade of the last century B.C. 

Although the personality of the author is unknown, his whole 
language and spirit, as well as his intimate knowledge of 
Palestine, proclaim him a devout Jew of that country. His 
toleration of the attitude of the Maccabees towards Sabbath ob- 
servance, and his enthusiastic description of their successes (ii. 41, 
ix. 43) indicate perhaps that he was a Sadducee. The transla- 
tion also comes from an unknown hand. Although Hebraistic, 
his language is characterised by ease and fluency. It appears to 
have been made about the middle of the last century B.C., and 
certainly by the time of Josephus, to whom it seems to have 
been known. 

Sources, Although the author wrote forty years after the 
Maccaboean Wars, he may have based his narrative largely upon 
personal acquaintance with the facts. He would also be in a 
position to draw upon the recollections of eye-witnesses still liv- 
ing, and to utilise a wealth of singularly fresh popular tradition. 



of Maccabees ^ Introduction. 

Yet in view of the wide scope and detailed character of the his- 
tory, and of the numerous chronological data with respect to 
events long past, it is highly probable that he possessed in addi- 
tion certain written sources of information regarding the rise and 
progress of the Maccabsean struggle. This is perhaps hinted at 
in ix. 22, although the passage says nothing as to the nature of 
these documents, and may simply mean that it was impossible 
to give a complete record of the doings of Judas. Apart from the 
official documents referred to below, the written sources acces- 
sible to the writer probably consisted of private letters, occasional 
chronicles of leading men and events, and such public records as 
are alluded to in xi. 37, xiv. 18, etc. It has been thought that 
in the verses incorporated with the narrative, particularly in the 
section dealing with the history of Judas, we may have a trace 
of the actual sources drawn upon. On this theory these verses 
consist of snatches from contemporary psalms and dirges which 
contained a good deal of positive material suitable for the author's 
purpose. The question is one of probabilities, and will depend 
for its answer upon the readiness or reluctance of the reader to 
suppose that the inspiration of his material moved the writer to 
express himself in lyrical form. 

Historical Credibility. i Mace, is not free from error. 

It represents the partition of Alexander's empire as made by 

.himself (i. 6) ; it exaggerates the number of elephants engaged 

in the battle of Maguesia (viii. 6 ; cp. Livy, xxxvii. 39) ; it is in 

several particulars inaccurate with respect to the Romans (chap. 

viii.) ; it assumes a racial affinity between the Spartans and the 

Jews (xii. 6) ; it disagrees with the statement of various historians 

as to thedateof themurderof Antiochus VI. by Tryphon(xiv. i^. 
B xvii 



Introduction. ^ The Books 

But these mistakes in no way detract from the good faith of the 
writer ; they are due to his imperfect acquaintance with the out- 
side world. His habit of putting long speeches into the mouths 
of different personages (ii. 49 ff., iii. 18 ff., etc.) is common to him 
with ancient historians in general. Where he differs from 
Josephus, his statements are probably more reliable than those 
of that writer. The one respect in which his credibility is assail- 
able is his undoubted tendency to exaggeration in the matter of 
numbers, especially as regards the slaughter of their enemies by 
the Jews (vii. 46, xi. 47), although even here he may be 
accurately reporting the information he received. 

There remains the question as to the reliability of the osten- 
sibly official documents (eleven in all) which, as in the Book of 
Ezra, are incorporated with the narrative. With one exception, 
that of Jonathan's letter to the Spartans (xii. 6 ff. ), these are 
communications to the Maccabees from outsiders, and their 
originals can well have been in Jerusalem and at the disposal of 
the writer. It would be absurd to regard them one and all as 
pure fabrications on the part of either author or translator. Some 
of them are described as ' copies ' (viii. 22, xii. 5, etc. ), and these 
may at least be deemed tolerably accurate Hebrew translations 
(re-translated into Greek by the translator of the book). Others, 
however, must be viewed as attempts, on the part of the writer 
or his authority, to restore the lost originals (cp. xii. 20 ff., xiv. 
20 ff., XV. 16 ff.). 

As a whole, the work undoubtedly bears the stamp of historical 
trustworthiness. Its masterly detail, its sobriety of language, its 
abstinence from abuse of the enemies of the Jews, its careful 
chronology, and its geographical precision, entitle it to rank as 
genuine history, and constitute it 'a record of priceless worth.' 



of Maccabees ^ introduction. 

Religious Standpoint. The writer's undisguised admiration 
for the heroism of the Maccabees is based upon a deep-seated 
reverence for 'the Law and the Ordinances' (ii. 21) which they 
shed their blood to preserve. He is shocked at the desecration of 
the sanctuary (i, 21), the destruction of the 'holy books' (i. 57, 
xii, 9), and the blasphemies of Nicanor (vii, 34 f,). All the 
miseries of his nation he views as manifestations of the Divine 
displeasure (i. 64). Trust in God is the secret of strength (ii. 61) 
and victory (iii, 18), Yet the depth of the theocratic feeling 
that underlies the book is equalled only by the extraordinary 
reserve shown in the expression of it. According to the true 
text, and perhaps in keeping with the ruling custom of the time, 
the Divine Name does not once occur in the book. The term 
' heaven,' or merely a pronoun, is used instead of 'Jehovah ' or 
'God' (iii. 50, ii. 61, etc.). Thus prayer is addressed not to a 
present Jehovah, but to the remote heaven (iii. 50, iv. 10). The 
absence of the penitential element from the prayers put into the 
lips of the Maccab?ean leaders is also noteworthy, and in strong 
contrast to what we find in Nehemiah (i. 6, ix. 2) and Daniel 
(ix. 3-20), The victories of the Maccabees are ascribed to their 
own valour and skill, and not to any miraculous intervention of 
God, Recognising the spiritual poverty of his age, the author 
wistfully looks for ' a faithful prophet ' who shall declare the 
Divine will with respect to certain civil and religious pro- 
blems (iv. 46, xiv. 41). The reference here can scarcely be 
directly to the Messiah. In I Mace, the hope of immor- 
tality finds no expression ; the rewards to which the dying 
Mattathias points (ii. 52 ff, ) are all for this life. 

Use in the Christian Church. The book is quoted or re- 
six 



Introduction. ^ The Books 

ferred to by many of the fathers, and appears to have been used, 
though not extensively, in the Christian Church from an early 
date. It is not, however, included in the lists of Old Testament 
scriptures drawn up by Athanasius (t373)> Gregory Nazianzus 
(f39o), and others, and until the Council of Trent (1546), when 
I and 2 Mace, were accepted as canonical, had no more than 
* ecclesiastical ' rank. Along with the other Apocrypha, these 
books were excluded from the Canon of the Protestant churches. 
Nevertheless by Luther, and many others, i Mace, was greatly 
prized, ahd it is significant that even the zeal of the Edinburgh 
Bible Society was unable to swell its list of ' corruptions of the 
Apocryphal books ' by a single quotation from this work. 

Chronology. The writer follows the era of the Seleucid^ 
or Syrian kings, which begins with the accession of Seleucus I., 
Nicator, on the 1st Tishri (October) B.C. 312. As, however, he 
reckons months after the Jewish method, he dates the commence- 
ment of the Seleucid era from the ist Nisan (April), e'.^., about six 
months earlier (?or later) than the real date. The new era 
adopted by the Jews on the attainment of civil independence 
(xiii. 42), and coincident with the first year of Simon's reign 
(=173 of Seleucid era, or B.C. 143), was apparently used 
only along with the Syrian (xiv. 27), and was soon discarded 
altogether. 



III.— THE SECOND BOOK OF MACCABEES 

The period deaJt with in 2 Mace, is the interval of fifteen 
years between the close of the reign of Seleucus IV., Philopator, 



of Maccabees 5^ introduction. 

(B.C. 176) and the defeat of Nicanor by Judas (B.C. r6i). It 
thus begins at a point one year earlier than does I Mace, and 
for this short period, i.e., for the events related from iii. i-iv. 6, 
it is our principal authority, but for the remaining fourteen years 
embraced in the narrative it occupies only a supplementary place 
alongside of the First Book. 

Contents. The two letters prefixed to the book (i.-ii. i8) 
form no integral part of it. Except that they both purport to 
contain an invitation to the Egyptian Jews to keep the Feast of 
the Dedication, they have no real connection even with one 
another. Originally independent documents, they were joined to 
2 Mace, by a later hand, with the view of influencing the Jews 
in Egypt to honour the Temple by observing the Feast of the 
Dedication. That the letters are not the work of the epitomiser 
himself may reasonably be inferred from the contradictions of 
i. 7, which speaks of ' the extremity of trouble ' as existing in 
the Seleucid year 169 ( = B.C. 144-143), with xv. 37, which states 
that after Nicanor's death the Hebrews had the city in their 
power, and of i. 1 1 ff. with ix. i ff. as to the circumstances 
attending the death of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes. There can 
be little doubt that both letters are forgeries. 

Between the two introductory letters and the main narrative 
stands the writer's own preface, in which he states the source, 
object, and plan of his work (ii. 19-32). The remainder of the 
book consists of an abridgment of a larger history in five 
volumes by a certain Jason of Cyrene (ii. 23 ff.), a Hellenistic 
Jew. In the opening section of his work (iii. l-iv. 6) the 
epitomiser describes an abortive attempt by Heliodorus, minister 
of Seleucus IV., to plunder the Temple, and the' disgraceful 



Introduction. ^ The BoolcS 



plotting of one Simon, a Benjamite, against the excellent high 
priest Onias III. Thereafter from iv. 7-vii. 42 the narrative runs 
parallel with that of I Mace. i. 10-64 — although it is given with 
much greater fulness of detail — and depicts, on the one hand, 
the apostasy of the Hellenisers, and, on the other, the heroic 
martyrdom of many of the faithful under the terrible persecution 
of the tyrant Epiphanes. Chaps, xiii. i-xv. 37 cover the same 
ground as i Mace, iii.-vii., and recount the rise and progress of 
the Maccabfean revolt down to the defeat and death of Nicanor. 
In conclusion, the writer asks that his work should be judged 
according to its merits (xv. 38 f.). 

Sources, Date, and Authorship. The narrative is pro- 
fessedly a digest of Jason's work. This extended to five 
books, the endings of which some suppose to be reflected in 
corresponding sections of 2 Mace, the dividing lines being 
drawn at iii. 40, vii. 42, x. 9, xiii. 26, xv. 37. It was the 
object of the epitomiser to condense this somewhat ponderous 
and statistical work (ii. 24) into a single volume, so as to present 
its material in a more attractive literary form. Seeing he found 
this no easy task (ii. 26), the presumption is that he summarises 
the entire work. It seems, indeed, to have been the sole docu- 
mentary source of which he made use. Some scholars have 
thought that for chap, iii., which deals with events falling within 
the reigns of Seleucus IV., Philopator, and for chaps, xii.-xv., 
which treat of the reign of Demetrius I., the epitomiser must 
have used other written sources, since in his summary of 
contents he names only Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, and his son 
Eupator. But he probably mentions these two kings as those 
with whom the narrative is mainly concerned, without implying 



of Maccabees ^ introduction. 

that Jason's work was strictly limited to the period of their 
sovereignty. 

The original narrative was probably based on oral accounts 
of eye-witnesses, who told the story of the period from per- 
sonal recollection. In this case the detailed character of the 
work shows that Jason must have written not later than the 
middle of the second century B.C. Such mythical elements as 
those of chaps, vi., vii., which record the martyrdom of Eleazar, 
and the seven brethren with their mother, may well have 
grown up in less than a quarter of a century. It is, however, 
impossible to ascertain the precise date of Jason's composition. 
Nor is the case different as regards the epitome. It is clear 
from the altered relations with the Romans (viii. lo, 36) that 
it was written later than i Mace, {i.e., after circa B.C. 95), 
and from the underlying presuppositions with respect to the 
Temple worship that it was written before the destruction of 
Jerusalem in A.D. ^o. Moreover, the circumstance that 
2 Mace, was most probably known to Philo, whose descriptions 
of the tyrannical persecution of the pious vividly recall those of 
our book, points to its having been written not later than about 
A.D. 40. The likelihood is that it was composed nearly a cen- 
tury before the latter date. 

Of the personality of Jason nothing is known beyond what we 
learn from 2 Mace. Although described as ' of Cyrene,' this 
does not mean that he was resident there when he wrote. The 
fact that he shows a far more intimate acquaintance with Syria 
than with either Egypt or Palestine points to the very opposite 
conclusion. While he has a defective knowledge of the topo- 
graphy of the two latter countries, and alludes only to leading 
persons and events connected with them, he can speak of the 



Introduction. "^ The Books 

former with minute geographical knowledge, and mentions even 
minor personages by name (iv. 30, viii. 32, x. 32). 

The identity of the epitomiser is also unknown. By some he 
is believed to have been an Alexandrian Jew, but there is 
nothing in his work to indicate divergence from the orthodox 
Palestinian Judaism of the time. To a certain extent it bears 
the stamp of his own individuality, although in every fundamental 
respect it derives its character from the original source. Its 
flowery rhetoric and absurd exaggeration in numerical statements 
are probably to be ascribed to him, but he is not to be held 
responsible for certain discrepancies occurring in the book {cp., 
e.g., ix. 29 with xiii. 23), or for the supernatural portents, which 
are expressly said to have been transferred from the bulkier 
treatise of Jason. 

Language and Style. That Greek was the language used 
by both Jason and his epitomiser is practically certain. To 
Jerome it was evident ' from its very style ' that 2 Mace, was 
originally written in Greek. Hebraisms are few and not harsh, 
and the diction generally is that of the Greek rhetorician rather 
than that of the Hebrew annalist. Occasionally the language is 
either simple and natural, or awkward and uncouth (as in 
xiii. 19-26), but for the most part it is inflated, florid, and 
artificial. Though fond of using rare words and alliterative 
expressions, the epitomiser writes excellent idiomatic Greek. 

Historical Worth. In historical trustworthiness 2 Mace, is 
decidedly inferior to the First Book, the authority of which is 
to be uniformly preferred in case of irreconcilable discrepancies. 
Of these the following are a few of the most obvious examples : 



of Maccabees 5i^ introduction. 

(i) The conflicting accounts of the death of Antiochus IV., 
Epiphanes, in I Mace. vi. and 2 Mace. ix. ; (2) the statement of 
ix. 29 that Philip fled to Egypt does not harmonise with that of 
I Mace. vi. 55, 63, which represents him as in possession of 
Antioch ; (3) according to xiv. i, Demetrius I. landed in Syria 
' with a mighty host and a fleet,' according to i Mace. vii. i., 
' with a few men ' ; (4) the alleged liking of Nicanor for Judas 
(xiv. 24) is in sharp contrast to the tenor of i Mace. vii. 30 ; {5) 
in XV. 31, 35 it is stated that the Acra was recaptured in B.C. 161, 
whereas according to i Mace. xiii. 51 this happened in B.C. 142. 
All attempts to harmonise these and similar discrepancies on the 
theory that the two writers used a different chronology have 
hitherto failed. Both probably reckoned by the Seleucid era. 
Besides historical inaccuracies, the work contains absurd ex- 
aggerations (viii. 24, etc.), and highly-coloured descriptions 
(vi. i8-vii. 42). Yet it is not without historical value. In par- 
ticular, the account of the circumstances that led up to the 
Maccabsean revolt (iii. i-iv. 6) is of great worth, and contains 
nothing incredible. On many points the book is in full agree- 
ment with I Mace, while it is also at one with Josephus in 
regard to several events not referred to in that work. 

Religious Character. The religious tone of 2 Mace, is in 
strong contrast to that of I Mace. While the sympathies of 
both writers are with the patriotic party and opposed to the 
Hellenisers, they are yet at opposite poles as regards their 
general religious standpoint. The free use of the Divine name, 
the frequent introduction of the miraculous element, the con- 
stant obtrusion of the religious side and homiletic significance of 
the history, and the excessive glorification of the Temple, — all dif- 



Introduction. ^ The Books 

ferentiate 2 Mace, very sharply from the First Book. Its purpose 
is not so much to relate the facts as to emphasise the importance 
of the two national festivals commemorative of the re-dedication 
of the sanctuary and the death of Nicanor. Chronological order 
is without scruple sacrificed to religious effect, as e.§., when the 
account of the institution of the Feast of Dedication (x. i-8) is 
placed at the end of the first half, and that of Nicanor's day ' at 
the end of the other half, of the entire narrative. The writer 
was apparently a Pharisee with no friendly feeling towards the 
priestly order, whose vices are scathingly exposed (iv. 13). Al- 
though Judas is the hero of the book, his own death is un- 
recorded, and nothing is said that can redound to the glory of 
his family. On the other hand, it is significant that while no 
priest is mentioned in that honourable category, the first to 
suffer martyrdom is 'one of the principal scribes' (vi. 18 ff.). 
The strict Sabbatarianism of the epitomiser (v. 25, vi. 11, etc.), 
the prominence given by him to angelic appearances, and his 
very definite doctrine of the Resurrection (chap, vii.) distinctly 
betray his Pharisaic leanings. 

Ecclesiastical Reco'g-nition. 2 Mace, never attained 
canonical rank among the Jews, although both Philo and the 
later Rabbinical writers drew materials from it. Probably the 
first Christian reference to it is in the Epistle to the Hebrews 
{c/>. Heb. xi. 35 with 2 Mace. vi. 19, 28). It is very frequently 
alluded to in the writings of the early Fathers, especially in 
connection with the story of the martyrs. Origen, Jerome and 
Augustine held it in high esteem, although only the last-named 
was disposed to give it canonical rank. The Protestant Church 

has not received it into the Canon, and has usually rated it much 
xxvi 



of Maccabees 5^ introduction. 

lower than the First Book. Luther, while acknowledging that it 
is not utterly devoid of good, says in his Table Talk (i. 24) : ' I 
am so hostile to the other (second) Book of Maccabees, and to 
Esther, as to wish they had never existed ; for they Judaise too 
much and contain much heathen naughtiness.' By the Roman 
Catholic Church, on the other hand, 2 Mace, is received as 
canonical, and the so-called ' relics of the Maccabees ' are still 
the objects of superstitious veneration in Cologne Cathedral, 



m 



The First Book of the 

Maccabees 

AND it happened, after that Alexander son of Wars of 
Philip, the Macedonian, who came out of Alexander 
the land of Chettiini, had smitten Darius king of the tht Great 
Persians and Medes, that he reigned in his stead, the 
first over Greece, and made many wars, and won s 
many strong holds, and slew the kings of the earth, 
and went through to the ends of the earth, and took 
spoils of many nations, insomuch that the earth was 
quiet before him ; whereupon he was exalted, and 
his heart was lifted up. And he gathered a mighty lo 
strong host, and ruled over countries, and nations, 
and kings, who became tributaries unto him. And 
after these things he fell sick, and perceived that he 
should die. Wherefore he called his servants, such 
as were honourable, and had been brought up with is 
him from his youth, and parted his kingdom among 
them, while he was yet alive. So Alexander reigned 
twelve years, and then died. And his servants bare 
rule every one in his place. And after his death 
they all put crowns upon themselves ; so did their »o 
sons after them many years : and evils were multiplied 
in the earth. 



Ch. I ; Ver. 10-20. **? First Book 

Ant'tochus And there came out of them a wicked root, 

Ep'ipkanes Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the 

invades king, who had been an hostage at Rome, and he 

Egypt reigned in the hundred and thirty and seventh year 

5 of the kingdom of the Greeks. 

In those days went there out of Israel wicked 
men, who persuaded many, saying, Let us go and 
make a covenant with the heathen that are round 
about us : for since we departed from them we have 
lo had much sorrow. So this device pleased them well. 
Then certain of the people were so forward herein, 
that they went to the king, who gave them licence 
to do after the ordinances of the heathen : where- 
upon they built a place of exercise at Jerusalem 
15 according to the customs of the heathen : and made 
themselves uncircumcised, and forsook the holy 
covenant, and joined themselves to the heathen, and 
were sold to do mischief. 

Now when the kingdom was established before 
20 Antiochus, he thought to reign over Egypt, that he 
might have the dominion of two realms. 

Wherefore he entered into Egypt with a great 
multitude, with chariots, and elephants, and horsemen, 
and a great navy, and made war against Ptolem.ee 
25 king of Egypt : but Ptolemee was afraid of him, and 
fled ; and many were wounded to death. Thus they 
got the strong cities in the land of Egypt, and he 
took the spoils thereof. 

And after that Antiochus had smitten Egypt, he 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. i ; Ver. 20-31. 

returned again in the hundred forty and third year, He cap- 

and went up against Israel and Jerusalem with a great tures Jeru- 

multitude, and entered proudly into the sanctuary, scilem 

and took away the golden altar, and the candlestick of 

light, and all the vessels thereof, and the table of the s 

shewbread, and the pouring vessels, and the vials, 

and the censers of gold, and the veil, and the crowns, 

and the golden ornaments that were before the temple, 

all which he pulled off. He took also the silver and 

the gold, and the precious vessels : also he took the 10 

hidden treasures which he found. And when he had 

taken all away, he went into his own land, having 

made a great massacre, and spoken very proudly. 

Therefore there was great mourning in Israel, in 

every place where they were ; so that the princes 13 

and elders mourned, the virgins and young men were 

made feeble, and the beauty of women was changed. 

Every bridegroom took up lamentation, and she that 

sat in the marriage chamber was in heaviness. The 

land also was moved for the inhabitants thereof, and 20 

ail the house of Jacob was covered with confusion. 

And after two years fully expired the king sent 
his chief collector of tribute unto the cities of Juda, 
who came unto Jerusalem with a great multitude, and 
spake peaceable words unto them, but all tvas deceit : 25 
for when they had given him credence, he fell suddenly 
upon the city, and smote it very sore, and destroyed 
much people of Israel. 

And when he had taken the spoils of the city, he 
3 



Ch. I ; Ver. 31-44. ^ First Book 

Jerusalem set it on fire, and pulled down the houses and walls 
the Habi- thereof on every side. But the women and children 

iation q/"took they captive, and possessed the cattle. 
Strangers Then buiided they the city of David with a great 
5 and strong wall, and with mighty towers, and made 
it a strong hold for them. And they put therein a 
sinful nation, wicked men, and fortified themselves 
therein. They stored it also with armour and victuals, 
and when they had gathered together the spoils of 
10 Jerusalem, they laid them up there, and so they 
became a sore snare : for it was a place to lie in wait 
against the sanctuary, and an evil adversary to Israel. 
Thus they shed innocent blood on every side of the 
sanctuary, and defiled it : insomuch that the in- 
15 habitants of Jerusalem fled because of them : where- 
upon the city was made an habitation of strangers, and 
became strange to those that were born in her ; and 
her own children left her. Her sanctuary was laid 
waste like a wilderness, her feasts were turned into 
2o mourning, her sabbaths into reproach, her honour 
into contempt. As had been her glory, so was her 
dishonour increased, and her excellency was turned 
into mourning. 

Moreover king Antiochus wrote to his whole 
23 kingdom, that all should be one people, and every 
one should leave his laws : so all the heathen agreed 
according to the commandment of the king. Yea, many 
also of the Israelites consented to his religion, and 
sacrificed unto idols, and profaned the sabbath. For 
4 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. i ; Ver. 44-56. 

the king had sent letters by messengers unto Jerusalem Antiochus 
and the cities of Juda, that they should follow the abolishes 
strange laws of the land, and forbid burnt offerings, Jenvlsh 
and sacrifice, and drink offerings, in the temple ; and Worship 
that they should profane the sabbaths and festival s 
days : and pollute the sanctuary and holy people : 
set up altars, and groves, and chapels of idols, and 
sacrifice swine's flesh, and unclean beasts : that they 
should also leave their children uncircumcised, and 
make their souls abominable with all manner of un- lo 
cleanness and profanation : to the end they might 
forget the law, and change all the ordinances. And 
whosoever would not do according to the command- 
ment of the king, he said, he should die. 

In the selfsame manner wrote he to his whole king- 15 
dom,and appointed overseers over all the people, com- 
manding the cities of Juda to sacrifice, city by city. 
Then many of the people were gathered unto them, to 
wit, every one that forsook the law ; and so they com- 
mitted evils in the land ; and drove the Israelites into 20 
secret places, even wheresoever they could flee for 
succour. 

Now the fifteenih day of the tnonth Casleu, in the 
hundred forty and fifth year, they set up the abomina- 
tion of desolation upon the altar, and builded idol 25 
altars throughout the cities of Juda on every side ; 
and burnt incense at the doors of their houses, and in 
the streets. And when they had rent in pieces the 
books of the law which they found, they burnt them 
C 5 



Ch. 2; Ver. 1-7. •^? First Book 

The Wor- with fire. And wheresoever was found with any the 

ship (>/'book. of the testament, or if any consented to the law, 

Idols the king's commandment was, that they should put 

begun him to death. Thus did they by their authority 

5 unto the Israelites every month, to as many as were 

found in the cities. 

Now the five and twentieth day of the month they 
did sacrifice upon the idol altar, which was upon the 
altar of God. At which time according to the 
10 commandment they put to death certain women, 
that had caused their children to be circumcised. 
And they hanged the infants about their necks, and 
rifled their houses, and slew them that had circum- 
cised them. 
IS Howbeit many in Israel were fully resolved and 
confirmed in themselves not to eat any unclean thing. 
Wherefore they chose rather to die, that they might 
not be defiled with meats, and that they might not 
profane the holy covenant : so then they died. And 
20 there was very great wrath upon Israel. 

* In those days arose Mattathias the son of John, 
the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, 
from Jerusalem, and dwelt in Modin. And he had 
five sons, Joannan, called Caddis : Simon, called 
25 Thassi : Judas, who was called Maccabeus : Eleazar, 
called Avaran : and Jonathan, whose surname was 
Apphus. 

And when he saw the blasphemies that were 
committed in Juda and Jerusalem, he said, 
6 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 2 ; Ver. 7-18. 

Woe is me! wherefore was I born to see this Grief of 
misery of my people, and of the holy city, and to Matta- 
dwell there, when it was delivered into the hand oithias 
the enemy, and the sanctuary into the hand of 
strangers ? Her temple is become as a man without 5 
glory. Her glorious vessels are carried away into 
captivity, her infants are slain in the streets, her 
young men with the sword of the enemy. What 
nation hath not had a part in her kingdom, and 
gotten of her spoils \ All her ornaments are taken 10 
away ; of a free woman she is become a bondslave. 
And, behold, our sanctuary, even our beauty and our 
glory, is laid waste, and the Gentiles have profaned 
it. To what end therefore shall we live any 
longer ? is 

Then Mattathias and his sons rent their clothes, and 
put on sackcloth, and mourned very sore. 

In the mean while the king's officers, such as 
compelled the people to revolt, came into the city 
Modin, to make them sacrifice. And when many 20 
of Israel came unto them, Mattathias also and his 
sons came together. Then answered the king's 
officers, and said to Mattathias on this wise, Thou 
art a ruler, and an honourable and great man in this 
city, and strengthened with sons and brethren : now 25 
therefore come thou first, and fulfil the king's 
commandment, like as all the heathen have done, 
yea, and the men of Juda also, and such as remain at 
Jerusalem : so shalt thou and thy house be in the 
7 



Ch. 2; Ver. 18-27. ^ First Book 

Re-volt q/" number of the King's Friends, and thou and thy 
Matta- children shall be honoured with silver and gold, and 
tkias many rewards. 

Then Mattathias answered and spake with a loud 
s voice, Though all the nations that are under the 
king's dominion obey him, and fall away every one 
from the religion of their fathers, and give consent to 
his commandments : yet will I and my sons and my 
brethren walk in the covenant of our fathers. God. 
10 forbid that we should forsake the law and. the 
ordinances. We will not hearken to the king's 
words, to go from our religion, either on the right 
hand, or the left. 

Now when he had left speaking these words, there 
IS came one of the Jews in the sight of all to sacrifice 
on the altar which was at Modin, according to the 
king's commandment. Which thing when Mattathias 
saw, he was inflamed with zeal, and his reins trembled, 
neither could he forbear to shew his anger according 
20 to judgment : wherefore he ran, and slew him upon 
the altar. Also the king's commissioner, who com- 
pelled men to sacrifice, he killed at that time, and 
the altar he pulled down. 

Thus dealt he zealously for the law of God, like 
25 as Phinees did unto Zambri the son of Salom. And 
Mattathias cried throughout the city with a loud voice, 
saying, 

Whosoever is zealous of the law, and maintaineth 
the covenant, let him follow me. 
8 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 2 ; Ver. 28-38. 

So he and his sons fled into the mountains, and left Slaughter 
all that ever they had in the city. Then many that of the 
sought after justice and judgment went down into the Folloivers 
wilderness, to dwell there : both they, and their of Matta- 
children, and their wives, and their cattle ; because thias 
afflictions increased sore upon them. 

Now when it was told the king's servants, and the 
host that was at Jerusalem, in the city of David, that 
certain men, who had broken the king's command- 
ment, were gone down into the secret places in the lo 
wilderness, they pursued after them a great 
number, and having overtaken them, they camped 
against them, and made war against them on the 
sabbath day. And they said unto them, Let that 
which ye have done hitherto suffice ; come forth, 15 
and do according to the commandment of the king, 
and ye shall live. 

But they said, We will not come forth, neither 
will we do the king's commandment, to profane the 
sabbath day. So then they gave them the battle 20 
with all speed. Howbeit they answered them not, 
neither cast they a stone at them, nor stopped the 
places where they lay hid ; but said. Let us die all 
in our innocency : heaven and earth shall testify for 
us, that ye put us to death wrongfully. 25 

So they rose up against them in battle on the 
sabbath, and they slew them, with their wives and 
children, and their cattle, to the number of a thousand 
people. 



Ch. 2 ; Ver. 39-49- ^ First Book 

Victory of Now when Mattathias and his friends understood 

Matta- hereof, they mourned for them right sore. And one 

thias of them said to another, If we all do as our brethren 

have done, and fight not for our lives and laws 

5 against the heathen, they will now quickly root us 

out of the earth. At that time therefore they 

decreed, saying. Whosoever shall come to make 

battle with us on the sabbath day, we will fight 

against him ; neither will we die all, as our brethren 

lo that were murdered in the secret places. 

Then came there unto him a company of Assideans, 
who were mighty men of Israel, even all such as 
were voluntarily devoted unto the law. Also all 
they that fled for persecution joined themselves unto 
IS them, and were a stay unto them. So they joined 
their forces, and smote sinful men in their anger, and 
wicked men in their wrath : but the rest fled to the 
heathen for succour. 

Then Mattathias and his friends went round about, 
2o and pulled down the altars : and what children 
soever they found within the coast of Israel un- 
circumcised, those they circumcised valiantly. They 
pursued also after the proud men, and the work 
prospered in their hand. So they recovered the 
25 law out of the hand of the Gentiles, and out of the 
hand of kings, neither suffered they the sinner to 
triumph. 

Now when the time drew near that Mattathias 
should die, he said unto his sons, 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 2 ; Ver. 49-64. 

Now hath pride and rebuke gotten strength, and Last 
the time of destruction, and the wrath of indignation : Words 
now therefore, my sons, be ye zealous for the law, of Matta- 
and give your lives for the covenant of your fathers, th'ias 
Call to remembrance what acts our fathers did in their 5 
time ; so shall ye receive great honour and an ever- 
lasting name. Was not Abraham found faithful in 
temptation, and it was imputed unto him for righteous- 
ness ? Joseph in the time of his distress kept the 
commandment, and was made lord of Egypt. Phinees w 
our father in being zealous and fervent obtained the 
covenant of an everlasting priesthood. Jesus for 
fulfilling the word was made a judge in Israel. Caleb 
for bearing witness before the congregation received 
the heritage of the land. David for being merciful 15 
possessed the throne of an everlasting kingdom. 
Elias for being zealous and fervent for the law was 
taken up into heaven. Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, 
by believing were saved out of the flame. Daniel for 
his innocency was delivered from the mouth of lions. 20 

And thus consider ye throughout all ages, that 
none that put their trust in him shall be overcome. 
Fear not then the words of a sinful man : for his 
glory shall be dung and worms. To day he shall be 
lifted up, and to morrow he shall not be found, 25 
because he is returned into his dust, and his thought 
is come to nothing. Wherefore, ye my sons, be 
valiant, and shew yourselves men in the behalf of the 
law ; for by it shall ye obtain glory. 



Ch. 3 : Ver. i-8. '^ First Book 

Judas And, behold, I know that your brother Simon is 

Maccabeus a man of counsel, give ear unto him alway : he shall 

succeeds be a father unto you. As for Judas Maccabeus, he 

hath been mighty and strong, even from his youth 

s up : let him be your captain, and fight the battle of 

the people. Take also unto you all those that 

observe the law, and avenge ye the wrong of your 

people. Recompense fully the heathen, and take 

heed to the commandments of the law. 

10 So he blessed them, and was gathered to his 
fathers. And he died in the hundred forty and 
sixth year, and his sons buried him in the sepulchres 
of his fathers at Modin, and all Israel made great 
lamentation for him. 

IS * Then his son Judas, called Maccabeus, rose up in 
his stead. And all his brethren helped him, and so 
did all they that held with his father, and they fought 
with cheerfulness the battle of Israel. So he gat his 
people great honour, and put on a breastplate as a 

20 giant, and girt his warlike harness about him, and he 
made battles, protecting the host with his sword. In 
his acts he was like a lion, and like a lion's whelp 
roaring for his prey. For he pursued the wicked, 
and sought them out, and burnt up those that vexed 

23 his people. Wherefore the wicked shrunk for fear 
of him, and all the workers of iniquity were troubled, 
because salvation prospered in his hand. He grieved 
also many kings, and made Jacob glad with his acts, 
and his memorial is blessed for ever. Moreover he 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 3 ; Ver. 8-18. 

went through the cities of Juda, destroying the un- Judas 
godly out of them, and turning away wrath from defeats 
Israel : so that he was renowned unto the utmost Apollomus 
part of the earth, and he received unto him such as 
were ready to perish. s 

Then Apollonius gathered the Gentiles together, 
and a great host out of Samaria, to fight against 
Israel. Which thing when Judas perceived, he went 
forth to meet him, and so he smote him, and slew 
him : many also fell down slain, but the rest fled. 10 
Wherefore Judas took their spoils, and Apollonius' 
sword also, and therewith he fought all his life long. 

Now when Seron, a prince of the army of Syria, 
heard say that Judas had gathered unto him a multi- 
tude and company of the faithful to go out with him is 
to war ; he said, I will get me a name and hpnour 
in the kingdom ; for I will go fight with Judas and 
them that are with him, who despise the king's 
commandment. So he made him ready to go up, 
and there went with him a mighty host of the ungodly 20 
to help him, and to be avenged of the children of 
Israel. 

And when he came near to the going up of Beth- 
horon, Judas went forth to meet him with a small 
company : who, when they saw the host coming to 25 
meet them, said unto Judas, How shall we be able, 
being so few, to fight against so great a multitude 
and so strong, seeing we arc ready to faint with fast- 
ing all this day ? Unto whom Judas answered. 



Ch. 3 ; Ver. 18-29. ^ First Book 

Overthroiu It is no hard matter for many to be shut up in the 

of Seron hands of a few; and with the God o/" heaven it is all 

one, to deliver with a great multitude, or a small 

company : for the victory of battle standeth not in 

5 the multitude of an host ; but strength cometh from 

heaven. They come against us in much pride and 

iniquity to destroy us, and our wives and children, 

and to spoil us : but we fight for our lives and our 

laws. Wherefore the Lord himself will overthrow 

lo them before our face : and as for you, be ye not 

afraid of them. 

Now as soon as he had left off speaking, he leapt 
suddenly upon them, and so Seron and his host was 
overthrown before him. And they pursued them 
15 from the going down of Bethhoron unto the plain, 
where were slain about eight hundred men of them ; 
and the residue fled into the land of the Philistines. 

Then began the fear of Judas and his brethren, 

and an exceeding great dread, to fall upon the nations 

20 round about them : insomuch as his fame came unto 

the king, and all nations talked of the battles of 

Judas. 

Now when king Antiochus heard these things, he 
was full of indignation : wherefore he sent and 
25 gathered together all the forces of his realm, even a 
very strong army. He opened also his treasure, and 
gave his soldiers pay for a year, commanding them 
to be ready whensoever he should need them. Never- 
theless, when he saw that the money of his treasures 
14 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 3 ; Ver. 29-37- 

failed, and that the tributes in the country were small, ^fnger of 

because of the dissension and plague, which he had yJntiochus 

brought upon the land in taking away the laws which 

had been of old time ; he feared that he should not 

be able to bear the charges any longer, nor to have 5 

such gifts to give so liberally as he did before : for 

he had abounded above the kings that were before 

him. Wherefore, being greatly perplexed in his 

mind, he determined to go into Persia, there to take 

the tributes of the countries, and to gather much 10 

money. 

So he left Lysias, a nobleman, and one of the 
blood royal, to oversee the affairs of the king from 
the river Euphrates unto the borders of Egypt : 
and to bring up his son Antiochus, until he came 15 
again. Moreover he delivered unto him the half 
of his forces, and the elephants, and gave him 
charge of all things that he would have done, as also 
concerning them that dwelt in Juda and Jerusalem : 
to wit, that he should send an army against them, 20 
to destroy and root out the strength of Israel, and 
the remnant of Jerusalem, and to take away their 
memorial from that place ; and that he should 
place strangers in all their quarters, and divide their 
land by lot. 2s 

So the king took the half of the forces that re- 
mained, and departed from Antioch, his royal city, 
the hundred forty and seventh year ; and having 
passed the river Euphrates, he went through the 



Ch. 3 ; Ver, 37-45. "^ First Book 

The j^'t^z'/high countries. Then Lysias chose Ptolemee the 
State of son of Dorymenes, and Nicanor, and Gorgias, 
Jerusalem mighty men of the king's friends : and with them 
he sent forty thousand footmen, and seven thousand 
s horsemen, to go into the land of Juda, and to 
destroy it, as the king commanded. So they went 
forth with all their power, and came and pitched 
by Emmaus in the plain country. And the mer- 
chants of the country, hearing the fame of them, 
10 took silver and gold very much, with servants, and 
came into the camp to buy the children of Israel 
for slaves : a power also of Syria and of the land of 
the Philistines joined themselves unto them. 

Now when Judas and his brethren saw that 
15 miseries were multiplied, and that the forces did 
encamp themselves in their borders ; for they knew 
how the king had. given commandment to destroy 
the people, and utterly abolish them ; they said one 
to anotiier, 
20 Let us restore the decayed estate of our people, 
and let us fight for our people and the sanctuary. 

Then was the congregation gathered together, 
that they might be ready for battle, and that they 
might pray, and ask mercy and compassion. 
25 Now Jerusalem lay void as a wilderness, there 
was none of her children that went in or out : the 
sanctuary also was trodden down, and aliens kept 
the strong hold ; the heathen had their habitation 
in that place ; and joy was taken from Jacob, and 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 3 ; Ver. 45-56. 

the pipe with the harp ceased. Wherefore the Reforms 
Israelites a'Jsembled themselves together, and came to ordered 
Maspha, over against Jerusalem ; for in Maspha was by Judas 
the place where they prayed aforetime in Israel. Then 
they fasted that day, and put on sackcloth, and cast 5 
ashes upon their heads, and rent their clothes. And 
laid open the book of the law, wherein the heathen 
had sought to paint the likeness of their images. 
They brought also the priests garments, and the 
firstfruits, and the tithes : and the Nazarites they 10 
stirred up, who had accomplished their days. Then 
cried they with a loud voice toward heaven, saying. 

What shall we do with these, and whither shall 
we carry them away ? For thy sanctuary is trodden 
down and profaned, and thy priests are in heaviness, 15 
and brought low. And, lo, the heathen are assem- 
bled together against us to destroy us : what things 
they imagine against us, thou knowest. How shall 
we be able to stand against them, except thou, 
God, be our help ? 20 

Then sounded they with trumpets, and cried with 
a loud voice. And after this Judas ordained 
captains over the people, even captains over thousands, 
and over hundreds and over fifties, and over tens. 
But as for such as were building houses, or had 25 
betrothed wives, or were planting vineyards, or 
were fearful, those he commanded that they should 
return, every man to his own house, according to 
the law. 



Ch. 4 ; Ver. i-8. ^ First Book 

Stratagem So the camp removed, and pitched upon the 
of Judas south side of Emmaus. And Judas said, 

Arm yourselves, and be valiant men, and see that 
ye be in readiness against the morning, that ye may 
5 fight with these nations, that are assembled together 
against us to destroy us and our sanctuary : for it is 
better for us to die in battle, than to behold the 
calamities of our people and our sanctuary. Never- 
theless, as the will of God is in heaven, so let him do. 

10 * Then took Gorgias five thousand footmen, and a 
thousand of the best horsemen, and removed out of 
the camp by night ; to the end he might rush in 
upon the camp of the Jews, and smite them suddenly. 
And the men of the fortress were his guides. 

15 Now when Judas heard thereof, he himself re- 
moved, and the valiant men with him, that he might 
smite the king's army which was at Emmaus, 
while as yet the forces were dispersed from the 
camp. In the mean season came Gorgias by night 

20 into the camp of Judas : and when he found no 
man there, he sought them in the mountains : for 
said he, These fellows flee from us. 

But as soon as it was day, Judas shewed himself 
in the plain with three thousand men, who neverthe- 

25 less had neither armour nor swords to their minds. 
And they saw the camp of the heathen, that it was 
strong and well harnessed, and compassed round 
about with horsemen ; and these were expert of war. 
Then said Judas to the men that were with him, 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 4 ; Ver. 8-20. 

Fear ye not their multitude, neitlier be ye afraid Defeat of 
of their assault. Remember how our fathers were the 
delivered in the Red sea, when Pharaoh pursued Invaders 
them with an army. Now therefore let us cry unto 
heaven, if peradventure the Lord will have mercy 5 
upon us, and remember the covenant of our fathers, 
and destroy this host before our face this day : that 
so all the heathen may know that there is one who 
delivereth and saveth Israel. 

Then the strangers lifted up their eyes, and saw 10 
them coming over against them. Wherefore they 
went out of the camp to battle ; but they that were 
with Judas sounded their trumpets. So they joined 
battle, and the heathen being discomfited fled into 
the plain. Howbeit all the hindmost of them were 15 
slain with the sword : for they pursued them unto 
Gazera, and unto the plains of Idumea, and Azotus, 
and Jam.nia, so that there were slain of them upon 
a three thousand men. This done, Judas returned 
again with his host from pursuing them, and said to 20 
the people. 

Be not greedy of the spoils, inasmuch as there is 
a battle before us. And Gorgias and his host are 
here by us in the mountain : but stand ye now against 
our enemies, and overcome them, and after this ye 25 
may boldly take the spoils. 

As Judas was yet speaking these words, there 
appeared a part of them looking out of the mountain : 
who when they perceived that the Jews had put 



Ch. 4 ; Ver. 20-30. ^ First Book 

Defeat o/" their host to flight, and were burning the tents ; for 

Gorgias the smoke that was seen declared what was done : 

when therefore they perceived these things, they 

were sore afraid, and seeing also the host of Judas 

5 in the plain ready to light, they fled every one into 

the land of strangers. 

Then Judas returned to spoil the tents, where they 
got much gold, and silver, and blue silk, and purple 
of the sea, and great riches. After this they went 
lo home, and sung a song of thanksgiving, and praised 
the Lord in heaven : because it is good, because his 
mercy emlureth for ever. Thus Israel had a great 
deliverance that day. 

Now all the strangers that had escaped came and 

13 told Lysias what had happened : who, when he 

heard thereof, was confounded and discouraged, 

because neither such things as he would were done 

unto Israel, nor such things as the king commanded 

him were come to pass. 

2o The next year therefore following Lysias gathered 

together threescore thousand choice men of foot, and 

five thousand horsemen, that he might subdue them. 

So they came into Idumea, and pitched their tents at 

Bethsura, and Judas met them with ten thousand 

25 men. And when he saw that mighty army, he 

prayed and said. 

Blessed art thou, O Saviour of Israel, who didst 
quell the violence of the mighty man by the hand of 
thy servant David, and gavest the host of strangers 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 4 ; Ver. 30-40. 

into the hands of Jonathan the son of Saul, and his Defeat of 
armourbearear ; shut up this army in the hand of Lysias 
thy people Israel, and let them be confounded in 
their power and horsemen : make them to be of no 
courage, and cause the boldness of their strength to s 
fall away, and let them quake at their destruction : 
cast them down with the sword of them that love 
thee, and let all those that know thy name praise 
thee with thanksgiving. 

So they joined battle ; and there were slain of the 10 
host of Lysias about five thousand men, even before 
them were they slain. Now when Lysias saw his 
army put to flight, and the manliness of Judas* 
soldiers, and how they were ready either to live or 
die valiantly, he went into Antiochia, and gathered 15 
together a company of strangers, and having made 
his army greater than it was, he purposed to come 
again into Judea. Then said Judas and his brethren. 

Behold, our enemies are discomfited : let us go up 
to cleanse and dedicate the sanctuary. 20 

Upon this all the host assembled themselves 
together, and went up into mount Sion. And when 
they saw the sanctuary desolate, and the altar pro- 
faned, and the gates burned up, and shrubs growing 
in the courts as in a forest, or in one of the mountains, 25 
yea, and the priests' chambers pulled down ; they 
rent their clothes, and made great lamentation, and 
cast ashes upon their heads, and fell down flat to 
the ground upon their faces, and blew an alarm with 



Ch. 4 ; Ver. 40-52. "^ First Book 

Jerusalem the trumpets, and cried toward heaven. Then Judas 

rf^a;«(f^ appointed certain men to fight against those that were 

IS restored \vi the fortress, until he had cleansed the sanctuary. 

So he chose priests of blameless conversation, such as 

5 had pleasure in the law : who cleansed the sanctuary, 

and bare out the defiled stones into an unclean 

place. 

And when as they consulted what to do with the 
altar of burnt offerings, which was profaned ; they 
lo thought it best to pull it down, lest it should be a 
reproach to them, because the heathen had defiled 
it : wherefore they pulled it down, and laid up the 
stones in the mountain of the temple in a convenient 
place, until there should come a prophet to shew 
15 what should be done with them. Then they took 
whole stones according to the law, and built a new 
altar according to the former ; and made up the 
sanctuary, and the things that were within the temple, 
and hallowed the courts. 
20 They made also new holy vessels, and into the 
temple they brought the candlestick, and the altar 
of burnt offerings, and of incense, and the table. 
And upon the altar they burned incense, and the 
lamps that were upon the candlestick they lighted, 
25 that they might give light in the temple. Further- 
more they set the loaves upon the table, and spread 
out the veils, and finished all the works which they 
had begun to make. 

Now on the five and twentieth day of the ninth 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 4; Ver. 52-61. 

month, which is called the month Casleu, in the Dedication 
hundred forty and eighth year, they rose up betimes of God's 
in the morning, and offered sacrifice according to Altar 
the law upon the new altar of burnt offerings, which 
they had made. Look, at what time and what day 5 
the heathen had profaned it, even in that was it 
dedicated with songs, and citherns, and harps, and 
cymbals. 

Then all the people fell upon their faces, wor- 
shipping and praising the God of heaven, who had 10 
given them good success. And so they kept the 
dedication of the altar eight days, and offered burnt 
offerings with gladness, and sacrificed the sacrifice 
of deliverance and praise. They decked also the 
forefront of the temple with crowns of gold, and 15 
with shields ; and the gates and the chambers they 
renewed, and hanged doors upon them. 

Thus was there very great gladness among the 
people, for that the reproach of the heathen was put 
away. Moreover Judas and his brethren with the 20 
whole congregation of Israel ordained, that the days 
of the dedication of the altar should be kept in their 
season from year to year by the space of eight days, 
from the five and twentieth day of the month Casleu, 
with mirth and gladness. At that time also they 25 
builded up the mount Sion with high walls and strong 
towers round about, lest the Gentiles should come 
and tread it down, as they had done before. And 
they set there a garrison to keep it, and fortified 



Ch. 5 ; Ver. i-io. ^ First Book 

Judas de- Bethsura to preserve it ; that the people might have 
feats the a defence against Idumea. 

Idumeans * Now when the nations round about heard that the 
£if Am- altar was built, and the sanctuary renewed as before, 
monites it displeased them very much. Wherefore they 
thought to destroy the generation of Jacob that was 
among them, and thereupon they began to slay and 
destroy the people. Then Judas fought against the 
children of Esau in Idumea at Arabattine, because 
lo they besieged Israel : and he gave them a great over- 
throw, and abated their courage, and took their spoils. 
Also he remembered the injury of the children of 
Bean, who had been a snare and an offence unto the 
people, in that they lay in wait for them in the ways. 
IS He shut them up therefore in the towers, and encamped 
against them, and destroyed them utterly, and burned the 
towers of that^/flf^r with fire, and all that were therein. 
Afterward he passed over to the children of 
Ammon, where he found a mighty power, and much 
20 people, with Timotheus their captain. So he 
fought many battles with them, till at length they 
were discomfited before him ; and he smote them. 
And when he had taken Jazar, with the towns 
belonging thereto, he returned into Judea. 
25 Then the heathen that were at Galaad assembled 
themselves together against the Israelites that were 
in their quarters, to destroy them ; but they fled to 
the fortress of Dathema, and sent letters unto 
Judas and his brethren, 

24 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 5 ; Ver. lo-ig. 

The heathen that are round about us are assembled Plans of 
together against us to destroy us : and they are pre- Judas ^ 
paring to come and take the fortress whereunto we Simon 
are fled, Timotheus being captain of their host. 
Come now therefore, and deliver us from their hands, 5 
for many of us are slain : yea, all our brethren that 
were in the places of Tobie are put to death : their 
wives and their children also they have carried away 
captives, and borne away their stuff; and they have 
destroyed there about a thousand men. lo 

While these letters were yet reading, behold, there 
came other messengers from Galilee with their 
clothes rent, who reported on this wise, and said, 
They of Ptolemais, and of Tyrus, and Sidon, and all 
Galilee of the Gentiles, are assembled together 15 
against us to consume us. 

Now when Judas and the people heard these 
words, there assembled a great congregation 
together, to consult what they should do for 
their brethren, that were in trouble, and assaulted 20 
of them. Then said Judas unto Simon his brother, 
Choose thee out men, and go and deliver thy 
brethren that are in Galilee, for I and Jonathan 
my brother will go into the country of Galaad. 

So he left Joseph the son of Zacharias, and 25 
Azarias, captains of the people, with the remnant of 
the host in Judea to keep it. Unto whom he gave 
commandment, saying. Take ye the charge of this 
people, and see that ye make not war against the 

25 



Ch. 5 ; Ver. 10-28. ^ First Book 

Simon heathen until the time that we come again. Now 

Olivers unto Simon were given three thousand men to go 

Galilee into Galilee, and unto Judas eight thousand men 

for the country of Galaad. 

5 Then went Simon into Galilee, where he fought 

many battles with the heathen, so that the heathen 

were discomfited by him. And he pursued them 

unto the gate of Ptolemais ; and there were slain of 

the heathen about three thousand men, whose spoils 

lo he took. And those that were in Galilee, and in 

Arbattis, with their wives and their children, and all 

that they had, took he away with him, and brought 

them into Judea with great joy. 

Judas Maccabeus also and his brother Jonathan 

13 went over Jordan, and travelled three days' journey 

in the wilderness, where they met with the 

Nabathites, who came unto them in a peaceable 

manner, and told them every thing that had happened 

to their brethren in the land of Galaad : and how 

20 that many of them were shut up in Bosora, and 

Bosor, and Alema, Casphor, Maked, and Carnaim ; 

all these cities are strong and great : and that they 

were shut up in the rest of the cities of the country 

of Galaad, and that against to morrow they had 

25 appointed to bring their host against the forts, and to 

take them, and to destroy them all in one day. 

Hereupon Judas and his host turned suddenly by 
the way of the wilderness unto Bosora ; and when 
he had won the citv, he slew all the males with the 
26 



of Maccabees 5«» Ch. 5; Ver. 28-39. 

edge of the sword, and took, all their spoils, and Judas 
burned the city with fire. From whence he removed over- 
by night, and went till he came to the fortress. And tbroivs 
betimes in the morning they looked up, and, behold, Galaad 
there was an innumerable people bearing ladders and 5 
other engines of war, to take the fortress : for they 
assaulted them. When Judas therefore saw that the 
battle was begun, and that the cry of the city went 
up to heaven, with trumpets, and a great sound, he 
said unto his host. Fight this day for your brethren. 10 
So he went forth behind them in three companies, 
who sounded their trumpets, and cried with prayer. 

Then the host of Timotheus, knowing that it was 
Maccabeus, fled from him : wherefore he smote them 
with a great slaughter ; so that there were killed of 15 
them that day about eight thousand men. This 
done, Judas turned aside to Maspha ; and after he 
had assaulted it, he took it, and slew all the males 
therein, and received the spoils thereof, and burnt it 
with fire. From thence went he, and took Casphon, 20 
Maged, Bosor, and the other cities of the country of 
Galaad. 

After these things gathered Timotheus another 
host, and encamped against Raphon beyond the 
brook. So Judas sent men to espy the host, who 25 
brought him word, saying, All the heathen that be 
round about us are assembled unto them, even a very 
great host. He hath also hired the Arabians to 
help them, and they have pitched their tents beyond 



Ch. 5 ; Ver. 39-47- ^ First Book 

Capture of the brook, ready to come and fight against thee. 
Carnatm Upon this Judas went to meet them. 

Then Timotheus said unto the captains of his host. 
When Judas and his host come near the brook, if he 
5 pass over first unto us, we shall not be able to with- 
stand him ; for he will mightily prevail against 
us : but if he be afraid, and camp beyond the river, 
we shall go over unto him, and prevail against 
him. 

10 Now when Judas came near the brook, he caused 
the scribes of the people to remain by the brook : 
unto whom he gave commandment, saying, Suffer no 
man to remain in the camp, but let all come to the 
battle. So he went first over unto them, and all the 

15 people after him : then all the heathen, being discom- 
fited before him, cast away their weapons, and fled 
unto the temple that was at Carnaim. But they took 
the city, and burned the temple with all that were 
therein. Thus was Carnaim subdued, neither could 

20 they stand any longer before Judas. 

Then Judas gathered together all the Israelites 
that were in the country of Galaad, from the least 
unto the greatest, even their wives, and their children, 
and their stuff, a very great host, to the end they 

2S might come into the land of Judea. Now when they 
came unto Ephron, (this was a great city in the way 
as they should go, very well fortified) they could not 
turn from it, either on the right hand or the left, 
but must needs pass through the midst of it. Then 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 5 ; ver. 47-57. 

they of the city shut them out, and stopped up the Siormkg 
gates with stones. of Ephron 

Whereupon Judas sent unto them in peaceable 
manner, saying. Let us pass through your land to go 
into our own country, and none shall do you any 5 
hurt ; we will only pass through on foot : howbeit 
they would not open unto him. Wherefore Judas 
commanded a proclamation to be made throughout 
the host, that every man should pitch his tent in the 
place where he was. So the soldiers pitched, and 'o 
assaulted the city all that day and all that night, till 
at the length the city was delivered into his hands : 
who then slew all the males with the edge of the 
sword, and rased the city, and took the spoils thereof, 
and passed through the city over them that were slain. 15 
After this went they over Jordan into the great plain 
before Bethsan. 

And Judas gathered together those that came 
behind, and exhorted the people all the way through, 
till they came into the land of Judea. So they went 20 
up to mount Sion with joy and gladness, where they 
offered burnt offerings, because not one of them were 
slain until they had returned in peace. 

Now what time as Judas and Jonathan were in the 
land of Galaad, and Simon his brother in Galilee before 25 
Ptolemais, Joseph the son of Zacharias, and Azarias, 
captains of the garrisons, heard of the valiant acts and 
warlike deeds which they had done. Wherefore 
they said. Let us also get us a name, and go fight 
29 



Ch. 5 ; Ver. 57-68. "^ First Book 

Reverse to against the heathen that are round about us. So 
Joseph y when they had given charge unto the garrison that 
j^zarias was with them, they went toward Jamnia. 

Then came Gorgias and his men out of the city 
5 to fight against them. And so it was, that Joseph 
and Azarias were put to flight, and pursued unto the 
borders of Judea : and there were slain that day of the 
people of Israel about two thousand men. Thus was 
there a great overthrow among the children of Israel, 
TO because they were not obedient unto Judas and his 
brethren, but thought to do some valiant act. More- 
over these men came not of the seed of those, by 
whose hand deliverance was given unto Israel. 
Howbeit the man Judas and his brethren were greatly 
15 renowned in the sight of all Israel, and of all the 
heathen, wheresoever their name was heard of; 
insomuch as the people assembled unto them with 
joyful acclamations. 

Afterward went Judas forth with his brethren, and 
20 fought against the children of Esau in the land 
toward the south, where he smote Hebron, and the 
towns thereof, and pulled down the fortress of it, and 
burned the towers thereof round about. From 
thence he removed to go into the land of the 
25 Philistines, and passed through Samaria. At that 
time certain priests, desirous to shew their valour, 
were slain in battle, for that they went out to fight 
unadvisedly. 

So Judas turned to Azotus in the land of the 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 6 : Ver. i-8. 

Philistines, and when he had pulled down their altars, Ant'tochus 

and burned their carved images with fire, and spoiled at Elymais 

their cities, he returned into the land of Judea. 

* About that time king Antiochus travelling through 

the high countries heard say, that Elymais in the 5 

country of Persia was a city greatly renowned for 

riches, silver, and gold ; and that there was in it a 

very rich temple, wherein were coverings of gold, 

and breastplates, and shields, which Alexander, son of 

Philip, the Macedonian king, who reigned first among 10 

the Grecians, had left there. Wherefore he came 

and sought to take the city, and to spoil it ; but he 

was not able, because they of the city, having had 

warning thereof, rose up against him in battle : so 

he fled, and departed thence with great heaviness, 15 

and returned to Babylon. 

Moreover there came one who brought him tidings 
into Persia, that the armies, which went against the 
land of Judea, were put to flight : and that Lysias, who 
went forth first with a great power, was driven away 20 
of the Jews ; and that they were made strong by the 
armour, and power, and store of spoils, which they 
had gotten of the armies, whom they had destroyed : 
also that they had pulled down the abomination, 
which he had set up upon the altar in Jerusalem, and 25 
that they had compassed about the sanctuary with 
high walls, as before, and his city Bethsura. 

Now when the king heard these words, he was 
astonished and sore moved : whereupon he laid him 



Ch. 6 ; Ver. 8-i8. •^ First Book 

Antiochus down upon his bed, and fell sick for grief, because it 

Eupator had not befallen him as he looked for. And there 

succeeds he continued many days : for his grief was ever more 

and more, and he made account that he should die. 

5 Wherefore he called for all his friends, and said unto 

them, 

The sleep is gone from mine eyes, and my 
heart faileth for very care. And I thought with 
myself, into what tribulation am I come, and how 
lo great a flood of misery is it, wherein now I am ! for 
I was bountiful and beloved in my power. But now 
I remember the evils that I did at Jerusalem, and 
that I took all the vessels of gold and silver that were 
therein, and sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judea 
15 without a cause. I perceive therefore that for this 
cause these troubles are come upon me, and, behold, 
I perish through great grief in a strange land. 

Then called he for Philip, one of his friends, 
whom he made ruler over all his realm, and gave him 
20 the crown, and his robe, and his signet, to the end he 
should bring up his son Antiochus, and nourish him 
up for the kingdom. So king Antiochus died there 
in the hundred forty and ninth year. 

Now when Lysias knew that the king was dead, 
25 he set up Antiochus his son, whom he had brought 
up being young, to reign in his stead, and his name 
he called Eupator. 

About this time they that were in the tower shut up 
the Israelites round about the sanctuary, and sought 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch, 6; Ver. 18-30. 

always their hurt, and the strengthening of the Eupator's 
heathen. Wherefore Judas, purposing to destroy Expedition 
them, called all the people together to besiege them, against 
So they came together, and besieged them in the Judas 
hundred and fiftieth year, and he made mounts for s 
shot against them, and other engines. Howbeit 
certain of them that were besieged got forth, 
unto whom some ungodly men of Israel joined 
themselves : and they went unto the king, and 
said, 10 

How long will it be ere thou execute judgment, 
and avenge our brethren ? We have been willing to 
serve thy father, and to do as he would have us, and 
to obey his commandments ; for which cause they of 
our nation besiege the tower, and are alienated from 13 
us : moreover as many of us as they could light on 
they slew, and spoiled our inheritance. Neither have 
they stretched out their hand against us only, but 
also against all their borders. And, behold, this day 
are they besieging the tower at Jerusalem, to take it : 20 
the sanctuary also and Bethsura have they fortified. 
Wherefore if thou dost not prevent them quickly, 
they will do greater things than these, neither shalt 
thou be able to rule them. 

Now when the king heard this, he was angry, and 25 
gathered together all his friends, and the captains of his 
army, and those that had charge of the horse. There 
came also unto him from other kingdoms, and from 
isles of the sea, bands of hired soldiers. So that the 
33 



Ch. 6; Ver. 30-38. ^ First Book 

Arrange- number of his army was an hundred thousand footmen, 

ment ©/"and twenty thousand horsemen, and two and thirty 

the Kings elephants exercised in battle. These went through 

Forces Idumea, and pitched against Bethsura, which they 

5 assaulted many days, making engines of war ; but 

they of Bethsura came out, and burned them with 

fire, and fought valiantly. 

Upon this Judas removed from the tower, and 
pitched in Bathzacharias, over against the king's 
10 camp. Then the king rising very early marched 
fiercely with his host toward Bathzacharias, where 
his armies made them ready to battle, and sounded 
the trumpets. And to the end they might provoke 
the elephants to fight, they shewed them the blood of 
IS grapes and mulberries. 

Moreover they divided the beasts among the armies, 

and for every elephant they appointed a thousand 

men, armed with coats of mail, and with helmets of 

brass on their heads ; and beside this, for every beast 

20 were ordained five hundred horsemen of the best. 

These were ready at every occasion : wheresoever 

the beast was, and whithersoever the beast went, 

they went also, neither departed they from him. 

And upon the beasts were there strong towers of 

25 wood, which covered every one of them, and were 

girt fast unto them with devices : there were also 

upon every one two and thirty strong men, that 

fought upon them, beside the Indian that ruled him. 

As for the remnant of the horsemen, they set them 

34 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 6; Ver. 38-47. 

on this side and that side at the two parts of the host, Battle at 
giving them signs what to do, and being harnessed Bath- 
all over amidst the ranks. Now when the sun shone xecharias 
upon the shields of gold and brass, the mountains 
glistered therewith, and shined like lamps of fire. 5 
So part of the king's army being spread upon the 
high mountains, and part on the valleys below, they 
marched on safely and in order. Wherefore all that 
heard the noise of their multitude, and the marching 
of the company, and the rattling of the harness, were lo 
moved : for the army was very great and mighty. 
Then Judas and his host drew near, and entered into 
battle, and there were slain of the king's army six 
hundred men. 

Eleazar also, surnamed Savaran, perceiving that 15 
one of the beasts, armed with royal harness, was 
higher than all the rest, and supposing that the king 
was upon him, put himself in jeopardy, to the end 
he might deliver his people, and get him a perpetual 
name : wherefore he ran upon him courageously 20 
through the midst of the battle, slaying on the right 
hand and on the left, so that they were divided from 
him on both sides. Which done, he crept under 
the elephant, and thrust him under, and slew him : 
whereupon the elephant fell down upon him, and 25 
there he died. 

Howbeit the rest of the Jeivs seeing the strength 
of the king, and the violence of his forces, turned 
away from them. 

35 



Ch. 6; Ver. 48-57. -^ First Book 



Jerusalem Then the king's army went up to Jerusalem to 
iesiegeJ meet them, and the king pitched his tents against 
Judea, and against mount Sion. But with them that 
were in Bethsura he made peace : for they came out 
5 of the city, because they had no victuals there to 
endure the siege, it being a year of rest to the land. 
So the king took Bethsura, and set a garrison there 
to keep it. As for the sanctuary, he besieged it 
many days : and set there artillery with engines and 

10 instruments to cast fire and stones, and pieces to cast 
darts and slings. Whereupon they also made engines 
against their engines, and held them battle a long 
season. Yet at the last, their vessels being without 
victuals, (for that it was the seventh year, and they 

IS in Judea, that were delivered from the Gentiles, 
had eaten up the residue of the store ; ) there 
were but a few left in the sanctuary, because the 
famine did so prevail against them, that they were 
fain to disperse themselves, every man to his own 

20 place. 

At that time Lysias heard say, that Philip, whom 
Antiochus the king, whiles he lived, had appointed 
to bring up his son Antiochus, that he might be 
king, was returned out of Persia and Media, and 

25 the king's host also that went with him, and that 
he sought to take unto him the ruling of the 
affairs. 

Wherefore he went in all haste, and said to the 
king and the captains of the host and the company, 
36 



of Maccabees ^^ Ch. 7 ; Ver. 1-4. 

We decay daily, and our victuals are but small, and Eupator 
the place we lay siege unto is strong, and the affairs breaks his 
of the kingdom lie upon us : now therefore let Oath of 
us be friends with these men, and make peace with Peiice 
them, and with all their nation ; and covenant with 5 
them, that they shall live after their laws, as they 
did before : for they are therefore displeased, and 
have done all these things, because we abolished their 
laws. 

So the king and the princes were content : where- 10 
fore he sent unto them to make peace ; and they 
accepted thereof. Also the king and the princes 
made an oath unto them : whereupon they went out 
of the strong hold. Then the king entered into 
mount Sion ; but when he saw the strength of the is 
place, he brake his oath that he had made, and 
gave commandment to pull down the wall round 
about. Afterward departed he in all haste, and 
returned unto Antiochia, where he found Philip to 
be master of the city : so he fought against him, 20 
and took the city by force. 

* In the hundred and one and fiftieth year Demetrius 
the son of Seleucus departed from Rome, and came 
up with a few men unto a city of the sea coast, and 
reigned there. And as he entered into the palace of 25 
his ancestors, so it was, that his forces had taken 
Antiochus and Lysias, to bring them unto him. 
Wherefore, when he knew it, he said, Let me not 
see their faces. So his host slew them. 

E ^17 



Ch. 7; Ver. 4-15. ^ First Book 

Exposition Now when Demetrius was set upon the throne of 

of j4/cimus his kingdom, there came unto him all the wicked 

and Sind. ungodly men of Israel, having Alcimus, who 

Bacchides was desirous to be high priest, for their captain : 

5 and they accused the people to the king, saying, 

Judas and his brethren have slain all thy friends, and 

driven us out of our own land. Now therefore send 

some man whom thou trustest, and let him go and 

see what havock he hath made among us, and in the 

10 king's land, and let him punish them with all them 

that aid them. Then the king chose Bacchides, a 

friend of the king, who ruled beyond the flood, and 

was a great man in the kingdom, and faithful to 

the king. And him he sent with that wicked 

IS Alcimus, whom he made high priest, and commanded 

that he should take vengeance of the children of 

Israel. 

So they departed, and came with a great power 

into the land of Judea, where they sent messengers 

20 to Judas and his brethren with peaceable words 

deceitfully. But they gave no heed to their words ; 

for they saw that they were come with a great power. 

Then did there assemble unto Alcimus and Bacchides 

a company of scribes, to require justice. Now the 

=5 Assideans were the first among the children of Israel 

that sought peace of them : for said they. One that 

is a priest of the seed of Aaron is come with this 

army, and he will do us no wrong. So he spake 

unto them peaceably, and sware unto them, saying, 

38 



of Maccabees §^ Ch. 7;Ver. 15-25. 

We will procure the harm neither of you nor your Judas 

friends. Whereupon they believed him : howbeit takes 

he took, of them threescore men, and slew them in Vengeance 

one day, according to the words which he wrote, the on Alc'imus 

flesh of thy saints have they cast out, and their blood 5 

have they shed round about Jerusalem, and there was 

none to bury them. 

Wherefore the fear and dread of them fell upon 
all the people, who said, There is neither truth nor 
righteousness in them ; for they have broken the lo 
covenant and oath that they made. After this 
removed Bacchides from Jerusalem, and pitched his 
tents in Bezeth, where he sent and took many of the 
men that had forsaken him, and certain of the 
people also, and when he had slain them, he cast 15 
them into the great pit. Then committed he the 
country to Alcimus, and left with him a power to 
aid him ; so Bacchides went to the king. 

But Alcimus contended for the high priesthood. 
And unto him resorted all such as troubled the 20 
people, who, after they had gotten the land of Juda 
into their power, did much hurt in Israel. Now 
when Judas saw all the mischief that Alcimus and 
his company had done among the Israelites, even 
above the heathen, he went out into all the coasts 25 
of Judea round about, and took vengeance of them 
that had revolted from him, so that they durst no 
more go forth into the country. On the other side, 
when Alcimus saw that Judas and his company had 
39 



Ch. 7 ; Ver. 25-35- ^^ First Book 

Nicanors gotten the upper hand, and knew that he was 
Deceit not able to abide their force, he went again to 
the king, and said all the worst of them that he 
could. 

5 Then the king sent Nicanor, one of his honourable 
princes, a man that bare deadly hate unto Israel, 
with commandment to destroy the people. So Nicanor 
came to Jerusalem with a great force ; and sent 
unto Judas and his brethren deceitfully with friendly 

10 words, saying, Let there be no battle between me 
and you ; I will come with a few men, that I may 
see you in peace. He came therefore to Judas, and 
they saluted one another peaceably. Howbeit the 
enemies were prepared to take away Judas by 

15 violence. Which thing after it was known to Judas, 
to <vit, that he came unto him with deceit, he was 
sore afraid of him, and would see his face no more. 
Nicanor also, when he saw that his counsel was 
discovered, went out to fight against Judas beside 

2o Capharsalama : where there were slain of Nicanor's 
side about five thousand men, and the rest fled into 
the city of David. 

After this went Nicanor up to mount Sion, and 
there came out of the sanctuary certain of the priests 

25 and certain of the elders of the people, to salute 
him peaceably, and to shew him the burnt sacrifice 
that was offered for the king. But he mocked 
them, and laughed at them, and abused them shame- 
fully, and spake proudly, and sware in his wrath, 
40 



of Maccabees c^ Ch. 7 ; Ver. 35-45. 

saying. Unless Judas and his host be now delivered Overthroiv 
into my hands, if ever I come again in safety, I will ofNicanor 
burn up this house : and with that he went out in a 
great rage. 

Then the priests entered in, and stood before 5 
the altar and the temple, weeping, and saying, 
Thou, Lord, didst choose this house to be 
called by thy name, and to be a house of prayer and 
petition for thy people : be avenged of this man 
and his host, and let them fall by the sword : 10 
remember their blasphemies, and suffer them not to 
continue any longer. So Nicanor went out of Jeru- 
salem, and pitched his tents in Bethhoron, where 
an host out of Syria met him. But Judas pitched in 
Adasa with three thousand men, and there he prayed, is 
saying, Lord, when they that were sent from the 
king of the Assyrians blasphemed, thine angel went 
out, and smote an hundred fourscore and five 
thousand of them. Even so destroy thou this 
host before us this day, that the rest may know 20 
that he hath spoken blasphemously against thy 
sanctuary, and judge thou him according to his 
wickedness. 

So the thirteenth day of the month Adar the 
hosts joined battle : but Nicanor's host was dis- 25 
comfited, and he himself was first slain in the 
battle. Now when Nicanor's host saw that he was 
slain, they cast away their weapons, and fled. Then 
they pursued after them a day's journey, from Adasa 



Ch. 8: Ver. 1-4 ^ First Book 

Judas unto Gazera, sounding an alarm after them with 

hears q/'their trumpets. Whereupon they came forth out 

the of all the towns of Judea round about, and closed 

Romans them in ; so that they, turning back upon them 

s that pursued them, were all slain with the sword, 

and not one of them was left. Afterwards they 

took the spoils, and the prey, and smote off Nicanor's 

head, and his right hand, which he stretched out so 

proudly, and brought them away, and hanged them 

10 up toward Jerusalem. For this cause the people 
rejoiced greatly, and they kept that day a day of 
great gladness. Moreover they ordained to keep 
yearly this day, being the thirteenth of Adar. 
Thus the land of Juda was in rest a little while. 

IS * Now Judas had heard of the fame of the 
Romans, that they were mighty and valiant men, 
and such as would lovingly accept all that joined 
themselves unto them, and make a league of amity 
with all that came unto them ; and that they were 

20 men of great valour. It was told him also of their 
wars and noble acts which they had done among 
the Galatians, and how they had conquered them, 
and brought them under tribute ; and what they had 
done in the country of Spain, for the winning of the 

25 mines of the silver and gold which is there ; and 
that by their policy and patience they had conquered 
all the place, though it were very far from them ; 
and the kings also that came against them from the 
uttermost part of the earth, till they had dis- 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 8 ; Ver. 4-12. 

comfited them, and given them a great overthrow, Judas 
so that the rest did give them tribute every year : hears of 
beside this, how they had discomfited in battle the 
Philip, and Perseus, king of the Citims, with others Romans 
that lifted up themselves against them, and had over- 5 
come them: how also Antiochus the great king of 
Asia, that came against them in battle, having an 
hundred and twenty elephants, with horsemen, and 
chariots, and a very great army, was discomfited by 
them ; and how they took him alive, and covenanted 10 
that he and such as reigned after him should pay 
a great tribute, and give hostages, and that which 
was agreed upon, and the country of India, and 
Media, and Lydia, and of the goodliest countries, 
which they took of him, and gave to king Eumenes : 15 
moreover how the Grecians had determined to come 
and destroy them ; and that they, having knowledge 
thereof, sent against them a certain captain, and 
fighting with them slew many of them, and carried 
away captives their wives and their children, and 20 
spoiled them, and took possession of their lands, 
and pulled down their strong holds, and brought them 
to be their servants unto this day : it 'was told htm 
besides, how they destroyed and brought under 
their dominion all other kingdoms and isles that at 23 
any time resisted them ; but with their friends and 
such as relied upon them they kept amity : and that 
they had conquered kingdoms both far and nigh, 
insomuch as all that heard of their name were afraid 



Ch. 8 ; Ver. 12-22. ^ First Book 

Judas of them : also that, whom they would help to a 
sends kingdom, those reign ; and whom again they would, 

to they displace : finally, that they were greatly 
Rome exalted : yet for all this none of them wore a crown, 
5 or was clothed in purple, to be magnified thereby : 
moreover how they had made for themselves a 
senate house, wherein three hundred and twenty 
men sat in council daily, consulting alway for the 
people, to the end they might be well ordered : 

10 and that they committed their government to one 

man every year, who ruled over all their country, 

and that all were obedient to that one, and that 

there was neither envy nor emulation among them. 

In consideration of these things, Judas chose 

15 Eupolemus the son of John, the son of Accos, and 
Jason the son of Eleazar, and sent them to Rome, to 
make a league of amity and confederacy with them. 
j4nd to intreat them that they would take the yoke 
from them ; for they saw that the kingdom of 

20 the Grecians did oppress Israel with servitude. 
They went therefore to Rome, which was a very 
great journey, and came into the senate, where they 
spake and said, Judas Maccabeus with his brethren, 
and the people of the Jews, have sent us unto you, 

25 to make a confederacy and peace with you, and that 
we might be registered your confederates and friends. 
So that matter pleased the Romans well. And this 
is the copy of the epistle which the senate wrote back 
again in tables of brass, and sent to Jerusalem, that 
44 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 8; Ver. 22.31. 

there they might have by them a memorial of peace Concludes 
and confederacy : ^ Treaty 

Good success be to the Romans, and to the '^ith the 
people of the Jews, by sea and by land for ever : the Romans 
sword also and enemy be far from them. If there 5 
come first any war upon the Romans or any of their 
confederates throughout all their dominion, the 
people of the Jews shall help them, as the time shall 
be appointed, with all their heart : neither shall they 
give any thing unto them that make war upon jo 
them, or aid them with victuals, weapons, money, or 
ships, as it hath seemed good unto the Romans ; but 
they shall keep their covenants without taking any 
thing therefore. In the same manner also, if war 
come first upon the nation of the Jews, the Romans 15 
shall help them with all their heart, according as 
the time shall be appointed them : neither shall 
victuals be given to them that take part against them, 
or weapons, or money, or ships, as it hath seemed 
good to the Romans ; but they shall keep their 20 
covenants, and that without deceit. According to 
these articles did the Romans make a covenant with 
the people of the Jews. Howbeit if hereafter the 
one party or the other shall think meet to add or 
diminish any thing, they may do it at their pleasures, 25 
and whatsoever they shall add or take away shall be 
ratified. And as touching the evils that Demetrius 
doeth to the Jews, we have written unto him, saying. 
Wherefore hast thou made thy yoke heavy upon our 
45 



Ch 9; Ver. 1-9. ^ First Book 

Second friends and confederates the Jews ? If therefore 

Expedition they complain any more against thee, we will do 

sent by them justice, and fight with thee by sea and by land. 

Demetrius * Furthermore when Demetrius heard that Nicanor 

5 and his host were slain in battle, he sent Bacchides 

and Alcimus into the land of Judea the second time, 

and with them the chief strength of his host : who 

went forth by the way that leadeth to Galgala, and 

pitched their tents before Masaloth, which is in 

10 Arbela, and after they had won it, they slew much 
people. Also the first month of the hundred fifty 
and second year they encamped before Jerusalem : 
from whence they removed, and went to Berea, with 
twenty thousand footmen and two thousand horsemen. 

IS Now Judas had pitched his tents at Eleasa, and 
three thousand chosen men with him : who seeing 
the multitude of the other army to be so great were 
sore afraid ; whereupon many conveyed themselves 
out of the host, insomuch as there abode of them no 

20 more but eight hundred men. When Judas therefore 
saw that his host slipt away, and that the battle 
pressed upon him, he was sore troubled in mind, and 
much distressed, for that he had no time to gather 
them together. Nevertheless unto them that remained 

25 he said, Let us arise and go up against our enemies, 
if peradventure we may be able to fight with them. 
But they dehorted him, saying. We shall never be 
able : let us now rather save our lives, and hereafter 
we will return with our brethren, and fight against 
46 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 9 ; Ver. 9-21 

them : for we are but few. Then Judas said, God Death of 
forbid that I should do this thing, and flee away Judas 
from them : if our time be come, let us die manfully Maccabeus 
for our brethren, and let us not stain our honour. 

With that the host of Bacchides removed out of 5 
their tents, and stood over against them, their horse- 
men being divided into two troops, and their slingers 
and archers going before the host, and they that 
marched in the foreward were all mighty men. As 
for Bacchides, he was in the right wing : so the host 10 
drew near on the two parts, and sounded their 
trumpets. They also of Judas' side, even they 
sounded their trumpets also, so that the earth shook 
at the noise of the armies, and the battle continued 
from morning till night. Now when Judas perceived 13 
that Bacchides and the strength of his army were on 
the right side, he took with him all the hardy men, 
who discomfited the right wing, and pursued them 
unto the mount Azotus. But when they of the 
left wing saw that they of the right wing were 20 
discomfited, they followed upon Judas and those that 
were with him hard at the heels from behind : where- 
upon there was a sore battle, insomuch as many were 
slain on both parts. Judas also was killed, and the 
remnant fled. Then Jonathan and Simon took Judas 23 
their brother, and buried him in the sepulchre of his 
fathers in Modin. Moreover they bewailed him, and 
all Israel made great lamentation for him, and 
mourned many days, saying. How is the valiant man 
47 



Ch. 9 ; Ver. 21-33. ^ First Book. 

Rise o/" fallen, that delivered Israel ! As for the other 
yonathan things concerning Judas and his wars, and the noble 
Maccabeus acts which he did, and his greatness, they are not 
written : for they were very many. 

5 Now after the death of Judas the wicked began 
to put forth their heads in all the coasts of Israel, 
and there arose up all such as wrought iniquity. 
In those days also was there a very great famine, by 
reason whereof the country revolted, and went with 

10 them. Then Bacchides chose the wicked men, and 
made them lords of the country. And they made 
enquiry and search for Judas' friends, and brought 
them unto Bacchides, who took vengeance of them, 
and used them despitefully. So was there a great 

15 affliction in Israel, the like whereof was not since the 
time that a prophet was not seen among them. For 
this cause all Judas' friends came together, and said 
unto Jonathan, Since thy brother Judas died, we 
have no man like him to go forth against our enemies, 

20 and Bacchides, and against them of our nation that 
are adversaries to us. Now therefore we have chosen 
thee this day to be our prince and captain in his 
stead, that thou mayest light our battles. Upon this 
Jonathan took the governance upon him at that 

^5 time, and rose up instead of his brother Judas. 

But when Bacchides gat knowledge thereof, he 

sought for to slay him. Then Jonathan, and Simon 

his brother, and all that were with him, perceiving 

that, fled into the wilderness of Thecoe, and pitched 

48 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 9; Ver. 33-42. 

their tents by tlie water of the pool Asphar. Which Jonathan 
when Bacchides understood, he came near to Jordan revenges 
with all his host upon the sabbath day. Now his 
Jonathan had sent his brother John, a captain of the Brother 
people, to pray his friends the Nabathites, that they 5 
might leave with them their carriage, which was 
much. But the children of Jambri came out of 
Medaba, and took. John, and all that he had, and 
went their way with it. After this came word to 
Jonathan and Simon his brother, that the children 10 
of Jambri made a great marriage, and were bringing 
the bride from Nadabatha with a great train, as 
being the daughter of one of the great princes of 
Chanaan. Therefore they remembered John their 
brother, and went up, and hid themselves under the 15 
covert of the mountain : where they lifted up their 
eyes, and looked, and, behold, there was much ado 
and great carriage : and the bridegroom came forth, 
and his friends and brethren, to meet them with 
drums, and instruments of musick, and many weapons. 20 
Then Jonathan and they that were with him rose 
up against them from the place where they lay in 
ambush, and made a slaughter of them in such sort, 
as many fell down dead, and the remnant fled into 
the mountain, and they took all their spoils. Thus as 
was the marriage turned into mourning, and the noise 
of their melody into lamentation. So when they 
had avenged fully the blood of their brother, they 
turned again to the marsh of Jordan, 

4<) 



Ch. 9 ; Ver. 43-54- ^ First Book 

Jonathan Now when Bacchides heard hereof, he came on 

Inflicts the sabbath day unto the banks of Jordan with a great 

Loss on power. Then Jonathan said to his company, Let 

Bacchides us go up now and fight for our lives, for it standeth 

5 not with us to day, as in time past : for, behold, the 

battle is before us and behind us, and the water of 

Jordan on this side and that side, the marsh likewise 

and wood, neither is there place for us to turn aside. 

Wherefore cry ye now unto heaven, that ye may 

lo be delivered from the hand of your enemies. With 

that they joined battle, and Jonathan stretched forth 

his hand to smite Bacchides, but he turned back from 

him. Then Jonathan and they that were with him 

leapt into Jordan, and swam over unto the farther 

15 bank : howbeit the other passed not over Jordan 

unto them. So there were slain of Bacchides' side 

that day about a thousand men. 

Afterward returned Bacchides to Jerusalem, and 

repaired the strong cities in Judea ; the fort in 

20 Jericho, and Emmaus, and Bethhoron, and Bethel, 

and Thamnatha, Pharathoni, and Taphon, these did 

he strengthen with high walls, with gates, and with 

bars. And in them he set a garrison that they 

might work malice upon Israel. He fortified also 

2s the city Bethsura, and Gazara, and the tower, and 

put forces in them, and provision of victuals. 

Besides, he took the chief men's sons in the country 

for hostages, and put them into the tower at Jerusalem 

to be kept. Moreover in the hundred fifty and 

so 



of Maccabees 5«» Ch. 9 ; Ver, 54-63. 

third year, in the second month, Alcimus com- Attempt to 
manded that the wall of the inner court of the capture 
sanctuary should be pulled down ; he pulled down Jonathan 
also the works of the prophets. And as he began 
to pull down, even at that time was Alcimus plagued, 5 
and his enterprizes hindered: for his mouth was 
stopped, and he was taken with a palsy, so that he 
could no more speak any thing, nor give order con- 
cerning his house. So Alcimus died at that time 
with great torment. 10 

Now when Bacchides saw that Alcimus was dead, 
he returned to the king : whereupon the land of 
Judea was in rest two years. Then all the ungodly 
men held a council, saying, Behold, Jonathan and 
his company are at ease, and dwell without care : 15 
now therefore we will bring Bacchides hither, who 
shall take them all in one night. So they went and 
consulted with him. Then removed he, and came 
with a great host, and sent letters privily to his 
adherents in Judea, that they should take Jonathan 20 
and those that were with him : howbeit they could 
not, because their counsel was known unto them. 
Wherefore they took of the men of the country, 
that were authors of that mischief, about fifty persons, 
and slew them. Afterward Jonathan, and Simon, 25 
and they that were with him, got them away to 
Bethbasi, which is in the wilderness, and they re- 
paired the decays thereof, and made it strong. 
Which thing when Bacchides knew, he gathered 



Ch. 9; Ver. 63-73- ^ First Book 

"Jonathan together all his host, and sent word to them that 
and were of Judea. Then went he and laid siege 
Bacchides against Bethbasi ; and they fought against it a long 
make season, and made engines of war. 

Peace But Jonathan left his brother Simon in the city, 

and went forth himself into the country, and with 

a certain number went he forth. And he smote 

' Odonarkes and his brethren, and the children of 

Phasiron in their tent, and when he began to smite 

10 them, and came up with his forces, Simon and his 

company went out of the city, and burned up the 

engines of war, and fought against Bacchides, who 

was discomfited by them, and they afflicted him 

sore : for his counsel and travail was in vain. 

15 Wherefore he was very wroth at the wicked men 

that gave him counsel to come into the country, 

insomuch as he slew many of them, and purposed to 

return into his own country. Whereof when 

Jonathan had knowledge, he sent ambassadors unto 

20 him, to the end he should make peace with him, 

and deliver them the prisoners. Which thing he 

accepted, and did according to his demands, and 

sware unto him that he would never do him harm 

all the days of his life. When therefore he had 

as restored unto him the prisoners that he had taken 

aforetime out of the land of Judea, he returned and 

went his way into his own land, neither came he 

any more into their borders. Thus the sword 

ceased from Israel : but Jonathan dwelt at Machmas, 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. lo ; Ver. i-n. 

and began to govern the people ; and he destroyed yonathan 
the ungodly men out of Israel. repairs 

* In the hundred and sixtieth year Alexander, the Jerusalem 
son of Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes, went up and 
took Ptolemais : for the people had received him, by 5 
means whereof he reigned there. Now when king 
Demetrius heard thereof, he gathered together an 
exceeding great host, and went forth against him to 
fight. Moreover Demetrius sent letters unto Jonathan 
with loving words, so as he magnified him. For said 10 
he. Let us first make peace with him, before he join 
with Alexander against us : else he will remember all 
the evils that we have done against him, and against 
his brethren and his people. Wherefore he gave him 
authority to gather together an host, and to provide '5 
weapons, that he might aid him in battle: he com- 
manded also that the hostages that were in the tower 
should be delivered him. 

Then came Jonathan to Jerusalem, and read the 
letters in the audience of all the people, and of them 20 
that were in the tower : who were sore afraid, when 
they heard that the king had given him authority to 
gather together an host. Whereupon they of the 
tower delivered their hostages unto Jonathan, and he 
delivered them unto their parents. «5 

This done, Jonathan settled himself in Jerusalem, 
and began to build and repair the city. And he 
commanded the workmen to build the walls and the 
mount Sion round about with square stones for 

F S3 



Ch. 10 ; Ver. 11-23. ^ First Book 

Jonathan fortification ; and they did so. Then the strangers, 

becomes that were in the fortresses which Bacchides had built, 

High fled away ; insomuch as every man left his place. 

Priest and went into his own country. Only at Bethsura 

5 certain of those that had forsaken the law and the 

commandments remained still : for it was their place 

of refuge. Now when king Alexander had heard 

what promises Demetrius had sent unto Jonathan : 

when also it was told him of the battles and noble 

10 acts which he and his brethren had done, and of the 

pains that they had endured, he said, Shall we find 

such another man ? now therefore we will make him 

our friend and confederate. Upon this he wrote a 

letter, and sent it unto him, according to these words, 

xz saying. 

King Alexander to his brother Jonathan sendeth 
greeting : we have heard of thee, that thou art a man 
of great power, and meet to be our friend. Where- 
fore now this day we ordain thee to be the high priest 
2o of thy nation, and to be called the king's friend ; (and 
therewithal he sent him a purple robe and a crown of 
gold : ) and require thee to take our part, and keep 
friendship with us. 

So in the seventh month of the hundred and sixtieth 
25 year, at the feast of the tabernacles, Jonathan put on 
the holy robe, and gathered together forces, and pro- 
vided much armour. 

Whereof when Demetrius heard, he was very 
sorry, and said, What have we done, that Alexander 
54 



of Maccabees 5o» Ch. lo; Ver. 23-33. 

hath prevented us in making amity with the Jews to Demetrius 
strengthen himself? I also will write unto them ^nJ 
words of encouragement, and promise them dignities Jonathan 
and gifts, that I may have their aid. He sent unto 
them therefore to this eifect : 5 

King Demetrius unto the people of the Jews 
sendeth greeting : whereas ye have kept covenants 
with us, and continued in our friendship, not joining 
yourselves with our enemies, we have heard hereof, 
and are glad. Wherefore now continue ye still to be 10 
faithful unto us, and we will well recompense you for 
the things ye do in our behalf, and will grant you 
many immunities, and give you rewards. And now 
do I free you, and for your sake I release all the 
Jews, from tributes, and from the customs of salt, and 13 
from crown taxes, and from that which appertaineth 
unto me to receive for the third part of the seed, and 
the half of the fruit of the trees, I release it from 
this day forth, so that they shall not be taken of the 
land of Judea, nor of the three governments which 20 
are added thereunto out of the country of Samaria 
and Galilee, from this day forth for evermore. 
Let Jerusalem also be holy and free, with the 
borders thereof, both from tenths and tributes. And 
as for the tower which is at Jerusalem, I yield up my 25 
authority over it, and give it to the high priest, that 
he may set in it such men as he shall choose to keep 
it. Moreover I freely set at liberty every one of the 
Jews, that were carried captives out of the land of 

55 



Ch. 10 ; Ver. 33-41. ^ First Book 

Demetrius Judea into any part of my kingdom, and / lui/I that 

an^ all my officers remit the tributes even of their cattle. 

Jonathan Furtiiermore I 'will that all the feasts, and sabbaths, 

and new moons, and solemn days, and the three days 

5 before the feast, and the three days after the feast, 

shall be all days of immunity and freedom for all the 

Jews in my realm. Also no man shall have authority 

to. meddle 'with them, or to molest any of them in any 

matter. / 'will further, that there be enrolled among 

10 the king's forces about thirty thousand men of the 
Jews, unto whom pay shall be given, as belongeth to 
all the king's forces. And of them some shall be 
placed in the king's strong holds, of whom also some 
shall be set over the affairs of the kingdom, which 

15 are of trust : and / 'will that their overseers and 
governors be of themselves, and that they live after 
their own laws, even as the king hath commanded in 
the land of Judea. And concerning the three 
governments that are added to Judea from the country 

20 of Samaria, let them be joined with Judea, that they 
may be reckoned to be under one, nor bound to obey 
other authority than the high priest's. As for Ptole- 
mais, and the land pertaining thereto, I give it as a 
free gift to the sanctuary at Jerusalem for the necessary 

25 expences of the sanctuary. Moreover I give every 
year fifteen thousand shekels of silver out of the 
king's accounts from the places appertaining. And 
all the overplus, which the officers paid not in as in 
former time, from henceforth shall be given toward 
s6 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. lo ; Ver. 41-50. 

the works of the temple. And beside this, the five Jonathan 
thousand shekels of silver, which they took from the repudiates 
uses of the temple out of the accounts year by year, Demetrius 
even those things shall be released, because they 
appertain to the priests that minister. And whosoever 5 
they be that flee unto the temple at Jerusalem, or be 
within the liberties thereof, being indebted unto the 
king, or for any other matter, let them be at liberty, 
and all that they have in my realm. For the build- 
ing also and repairing of the works of the sanctuary 10 
expences shall be given of the king's accounts. Yea, 
and for the building of the walls of Jerusalem, and 
the fortifying thereof round about, expences shall be 
given out of the king's accounts, as also for the 
building of the walls in Judea. 15 

Now when Jonathan and the people heard these 
words, they gave no credit unto them, nor received 
them, because they remembered the great evil that he 
had done in Israel ; for he had afflicted them very 
sore. But with Alexander they were well pleased, 20 
because he was the first that entreated of true peace 
with them, and they were confederate with him 
always. Then gathered king Alexander great forces, 
and camped over against Demetrius. And after the 
two kings had joined battle, Demetrius' host fled : 25 
but Alexander followed after him, and prevailed 
against them. And he continued the battle very 
sore until the sun went down : and that day was 
Demetrius slain. 



Ch. 10 ; Ver. 51-60. "^ First Book 

Jonathan Afterward Alexander sent ambassadors to Ptolemee 

meets king of Egypt with a message to this effect : foras- 

Alexander much as I am come again to my realm, and am set 

and in the throne of my progenitors, and have gotten the 

Ptolemy dominion, and overthrown Demetrius, and recovered 

our country ; for after I had joined battle with him, 

both he and his host was discomfited by us, so that 

we sit in the throne of his kingdom : now therefore 

let us make a league of amity together, and give me 

10 now thy daughter to wife : and I will be thy son in 

law, and will give both thee and her gifts according 

to thy dignity. 

Then Ptolemee the king gave answer, saying, 

Happy be the day wherein thou didst return into the 

IS land of thy fathers, and satest in the throne of their 

kingdom. And now will I do to tJiee, as thou hast 

written : meet me therefore at Ptolemais, that we 

may see one another ; for I will marry my daughter 

to thee according to thy desire. So Ptolemee went 

20 out of Egypt with his daughter Cleopatra, and they 

came unto Ptolemais in the hundred threescore and 

second year : where king Alexander meeting him., 

he gave unto him his daughter Cleopatra, and 

celebrated her marriage at Ptolemais with great 

25 glory, as the manner of kings is. 

Now king Alexander had written unto Jonathan, 

that he should come and meet him. Who thereupon 

went honourably to Ptolemais, where he met the two 

kings, and gave them and their friends silver and 

53 



of Maccabees ^ Ch, lo; Ver. 60-70. 

gold, and many presents, and found favour in their Letter of 
sight. At that time certain pestilent fellows of Demetrius 
Israel, men of a wicked life, assembled themselves the 
against him, to accuse him: but the king would not Tounger 
hear them. Yea more than that, the king com- 5 
manded to take off his garments, and clothe him in 
purple : and they did so. Also he made him sit by 
himself, and said unto his princes, Go with him into 
the midst of the city, and make proclamation, that 
no man complain against him of any matter, and 10 
that no man trouble him for any manner of cause. 
Now when his accusers saw that he was honoured 
according to the proclamation, and clothed in 
purple, they fled all away. So the king honoured him, 
and wrote him among his chief friends, and made 15 
him a duke, and partaker of his dominion. After- 
ward Jonathan returned to Jerusalem with peace and 
gladness. 

Furthermore in the hundred threescore and fifth 
year came Demetrius son of Demetrius out of Crete 20 
into the land of his fathers : whereof when king 
Alexander heard tell, he was right sorry, and re- 
turned into Antioch. Then Demetrius made 
Apollonius the governor of Celosyria his general, 
who gathered together a great host, and camped in 23 
Jamnia, and sent unto Jonathan the high priest, saying. 

Thou alone liftest up thyself against us, and I am 
laughed to scorn for thy sake, and reproached : and 
why dost thou vaunt thy power against us in the 

59 



Ch. 10 ; Ver. 70-80. ^ First Boolc 

"Jonathan moutitains ? Now therefore, if thou trustest in thine 

captures own strength, come down to us into the plain field, 

Jappa and there let us try the matter together : for with me 

is the power of the cities. Ask and learn who I am, 

5 and the rest that take our part, and they shall tell 

thee that thy foot is not able to stand before our 

face ; for thy fathers have been twice put to flight 

in their own land. Wherefore now thou shalt not 

be able to abide the horsemen and so great a power 

10 in the plain, where is neither stone nor flint, nor 

place to flee unto. 

So when Jonathan heard these words of Apollonius, 
he was moved in his mind, and choosing ten 
thousand men he went out of Jerusalem, where 
15 Simon his brother met him for to help him. And 
he pitched his tents against Joppe : but they of 
Joppe shut him out of the city, because Apollonius 
had a garrison there. Then Jonathan laid siege unto 
it : whereupon they of the city let him in for fear : 
20 and so Jonathan won Joppe. Whereof when 
Apollonius heard, he took three thousand horsemen, 
with a great host of footmen, and went to Azotus as 
one that journeyed, and therewithal drew him forth 
into the plain, because he had a great number of 
85 horsemen, in whom he put his trust. Then Jonathan 
followed after him to Azotus, where the armies joined 
battle. 

Now Apollonius had left a thousand horsemen in 
ambush. And Jonathan knew that there was an 
60 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. ii ; ver. 1-2. 

ambushment behind him ; for they had compassed in Jonathan 
his host, and cast darts at the people, from morning defeats 
till evening. But the people stood still, as Jonathan Demetrius 
had commanded them : and so the enemies' horses 
were tired. Then brought Simon forth his host, and 5 
set them against the footmen, (for the horsemen were 
spent,) who were discomfited by him, and fled. The 
horsemen also, being scattered in the field, fled to 
Azotus, and went into Beth-dagon, their idol's 
temple, for safety. But Jonathan set fire on Azotus, 10 
and the cities round about it, and took their spoils ; 
and the temple of Dagon, with them that were fled 
into it, he burned with fire. Thus there were burned 
and slain with the sword well nigh eight thousand 
men. And from thence Jonathan removed his host, 15 
and camped against Ascalon, where the men of the 
city came forth, and met him with great pomp. 
After this returned Jonathan and his host unto 
Jerusalem, having many spoils. Now when king 
Alexander heard these things, he honoured Jonathan 20 
yet more, and sent him a buckle of gold, as the 
use is to be given to such as are of the king's blood : 
he gave him also Accaron with the borders thereof 
in possession. 

* And the king of Egypt gathered together a great 25 
host, like the sand that lieth upon the sea shore, and 
many ships, and went about through deceit to get 
Alexander's kingdom, and join it to his own. 
Whereupon he took his journey into Syria in peace- 
61 



Ch. II ; Ver. 2-12. ^ First Book 

'Jonathan able manner, so as they of the cities opened unto 

and him, and met him : for king Alexander had com- 

Ptolemy manded them so to do, because he was his father in 

law. Now as Ptolemee entered into the cities, he 

5 set in every one of them a garrison of soldiers to 

keep it. And when he came near to Azotus, they 

shewed him the temple of Dagon that was burnt, 

and Azotus and the suburbs thereof that were 

destroyed, and the bodies that were cast abroad, and 

10 them that he had burnt in the battle ; for they had 
made heaps of them by the way where he should 
pass. Also they told the king whatsoever Jonathan 
had done, to the intent he might blame him : but the 
king held his peace. 

15 Then Jonathan met the king with great pomp at 
Joppe, where they saluted one another, and lodged. 
Afterward Jonathan, when he had gone with the 
king to the river called Eleutherus, returned again to 
Jerusalem. King Ptolemee therefore, having gotten 

20 the dominion of the cities by the sea unto Seleucia 
upon the sea coast, imagined wicked counsels against 
Alexander. Whereupon he sent ambassadors unto 
king Demetrius, saying. Come, let us make a league 
betwixt us, and I will give thee my daughter whom 

25 Alexander hath, and thou shalt reign in thy father's 
kingdom : for I repent that I gave my daughter unto 
him, for he sought to slay me. Thus did he slander 
him, because he was desirous of his kingdom. 
Wherefore he took his daughter from him, and gave 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. n ; Ver. 12-23. 

her to Demetrius, and forsook Alexander, so that Slaughter 
their hatred was openly known. of 

Then Ptolemee entered into Antioch, where he Alexander 
set two crowns upon his head, the crown of Asia, 
and of Egypt. In the mean season was king 5 
Alexander in Cilicia, because those that dwelt in 
those parts had revolted from him. But when 
Alexander heard of this, he came to war against him : 
whereupon king Ptolemee brought forth his host, and 
met him with a mighty power, and put him to flight. 10 
So Alexander fled into Arabia, there to be defended ; 
but king Ptolemee was exalted : for Zabdiel the 
Arabian took off Alexander's head, and sent it unto 
Ptolemee. King Ptolemee also died the third day 
after, and they that were in the strong holds were 15 
slain one of another. By this means Demetrius 
reigned in the hundred threescore and seventh 
year. 

At the same time Jonathan gathered together them 
that were in Judea, to take the tower that was in 20 
Jerusalem : and he made many engines of war 
against it. Then certain ungodly persons, who hated 
their own people, went unto the king, and told him 
that Jonathan besieged the tower. Whereof when 
he heard, he was angry, and immediately removing, 25 
he came to Ptolemais, and wrote unto Jonathan, that he 
should not lay siege to the tower, but come and speak 
with him at Ptolemais in great haste. Nevertheless, 
Jonathan, when he heard this, commanded to besiege 
63 



Ch. II ; Ver. 23-34- ^ First Book 

Demetrius it still : and he chose certain of the elders of Israel 
honours and the priests, and put himself in peril ; and took 
Jonathan silver and gold, and raiment, and divers presents 
besides, and went to Ptolemais unto the king, where 
5 he found favour in his sight. And though certain 
ungodly men of the people had made complaints 
against him, yet the king entreated him as his pre- 
decessors had done before, and promoted him in the 
sight of all his friends, and confirmed him in the high 

lo priesthood, and in all the honours that he had before, 
and gave him preeminence among his chief friends. 
Then Jonathan desired the king, that he would make 
Judea free from tribute, as also the three governments, 
with the country of Samaria ; and he promised him 

IS three hundred talents. 

So the king consented, and wrote letters unto 
Jonathan of all these things after this manner : King 
Demetrius unto his brother Jonathan, and unto the 
nation of the Jews, sendeth greeting : we send you 

20 here a copy of the letter which we did write unto 
our cousin Lasthenes concerning you, that ye might 
see it. King Demetrius unto his father Lasthenes 
sendeth greeting : we are determined to do good to 
the people of the Jews, who are our friends, and keep 

25 covenants with us, because of their good will toward 
us. Wherefore we have ratified unto them the borders 
of Judea, with the three governments of Apherema 
and Lydda and Ramathem, that are added unto 
Judea from the country of Samaria, and all things 
64 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. ii ; Ver. 34-41. 

appertaining unto them, for all such as do sacrifice in Tryphon 
Jerusalem, instead of the payments which the Vm^ plots 
received of them yearly aforetime out of the fruits oi against 
the earth and of trees. And as for other things that Demetrius 
belong unto us, of the tithes and customs pertaining 5 
unto us, as also the saltpits, and the crown taxes, 
which are due unto us, we discharge them of them all 
for their relief. And nothing hereof shall be revoked 
from this time forth for ever. Now therefore see that 
thou make a copy of these things, and let it be de- 10 
livered unto Jonathan, and set upon the holy mount 
in a conspicuous place. 

After this, when king Demetrius saw that the land 
was quiet before him, and that no resistance was made 
against him, he sent away all his forces, every one to 15 
his own place, except certain bands of strangers, 
whom he had gathered from the isles of the heathen : 
wherefore all the forces of his fathers hated him. 
Moreover there was one Tryphon, that had been of 
Alexander's part afore, who, seeing that all the host 20 
murmured against Demetrius, went to Simalcue the 
Arabian, that brought up Antiochus the young son of 
Alexander, and lay sore upon him to deliver him this 
young Antiochus, that he might reign in his father's 
stead : he told him therefore all that Demetrius had 25 
done, and how his men of war were at enmity with 
him, and there he remained a long season. 

In the mean time Jonathan sent unto king 
Demetrius, that he would cast those of the tower out 
6s 



Ch. II ; Ver. 41-51. ^ First Book 

Jonathan of Jerusalem, and those also in the fortresses : for 

assists they fought against Israel. So Demetrius sent unto 

Demetrius Jonathan, saying, I will not only do this for thee 

and thy people, but I will greatly honour thee and 

5 thy nation, if opportunity serve. Now therefore thou 

shalt do well, if thou send me men to help me ; for 

all my forces are gone from me. Upon this Jonathan 

sent him three thousand strong men unto Antioch : 

and when they came to the king, the king was very 

10 glad of their coming. Howbeit they that were of 

the city gathered themselves together into the midst 

of the city, to the number of an hundred and twenty 

thousand men, and would have slain the king. 

Wherefore the king fled into the court, but they of 

13 the city kept the passages of the city, and began to 

fight. 

Then the king called to the Jews for help, who 
came unto him all at once, and dispersing themselves 
through the city slew that day in the city to the 
20 number of an hundred thousand. Also they set fire 
on the city, and gat many spoils that day, and 
delivered the king. So when they of the city saw 
that the Jews had got the city as they would, their 
courage was abated : wherefore they made supplica- 
2s tion to the king, and cried, saying, 

Grant us peace, and let the Jews cease from 
assaulting us and the city. With that they castaway 
their weapons, and made peace ; and the Jews were 
honoured in the sight of the king, and in the sight ot 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. n ; ver. 51-61. 

all that were in his realm ; and they returned to Demetrius 
Jerusalem, having great spoils. So king Demetrius alienating 
sat on the throne of his kingdom, and the land was yonathan 
quiet before him. Nevertheless he dissembled in all is defeated 
that ever he spake, and estranged himself from 5 
Jonathan, neither rewarded he him according to the 
benefits which he had received of him, but troubled 
him very sore. After this returned Tryphon, and 
with him the young child Antiochus who reigned, 
and was crowned. lo 

Then there gathered unto him all the men of war, 
whom Demetrius had put away, and they fought 
against Demetrius, who turned his back and fled. 
Moreover Tryphon took the elephants, and won 
Antioch. At that time young Antiochus wrote 15 
unto Jonathan, saying, I confirm thee in the high 
priesthood, and appoint thee ruler over the four 
governments, and to be one of the king's friends. 
Upon this he sent him golden vessels to be served in, 
and gave him leave to drink in gold, and to be clothed ao 
in purple, and to wear a golden buckle. His brother 
Simon also he made captain from the place called 
The ladder of Tyrus unto the borders of Egypt. 
Then Jonathan went forth, and passed through the 
cities beyond the water, and all the forces of Syria 25 
gathered themselves unto him for to help him : and 
when he came to Ascalon, they of the city met him 
honourably. From whence he went to Gaza, but 
they of Gaza shut him out ; wherefore he laid siege 
67 



Ch. II ; Ver. 61-72. ^ First Book 

yonathan's unto it, and burned the suburbs thereof with fire, and 

Heroism spoiled them. Afterward, when they of Gaza made 

supplication unto Jonathan, he made peace with them, 

and took the sons of their chief men for hostages, and 

3 sent them to Jerusalem, and passed through the country 

unto Damascus. 

Now when Jonathan heard that Demetrius' princes 
were come to Cades, which is in Galilee, with a great 
power, purposing to remove him out of the country, 

10 he went to meet them, and left Simon his brother in 
the country. Then Simon encamped against Beth- 
sura, and fought against it a long season, and shut it 
up : but they desired to have peace with him, which 
he granted them, and then put them out from thence, 

15 and took the city, and set a garrison in it. As for 
Jonathan and his host, they pitched at the water of 
Gennesar, from whence betimes in the morning they 
gat them to the plain of Nazor. 

And, behold, the host of strangers met them in the 

20 plain, who, having laid men in ambush for him in the 
mountains, came themselves over against him. So 
when they that lay in ambush rose out of their places, 
and joined battle, ail that were of Jonathan's side 
fled ; insomuch as there was not one of them left, 

25 except Mattathias the son of Absalom, and Judas the 
son of Calphi, the captains of the host. Then 
Jonathan rent his clothes, and cast earth upon his 
head, and prayed. Afterwards turning again to 
battle, he put them to flight, and so they ran away. 

68 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. la; Ver. i-8. 

Now when his own men that were fled saw this, they jfonathans 

turned again unto him, and with him pursued them to Alliance 

Cades, even unto their own tents, and there they 'with Rome 

camped. So there were slain of the heathen that day ^ Lace- 

about three thousand men : but Jonathan returned to damon 

Jerusalem. 

* Now when Jonathan saw that the time served him, 

he chose certain men, and sent them to Rome, for to 

confirm and renew the friendship that they had with 

them. He sent letters also to the Lacedemonians, to 

and to other places, for the same purpose. So they 

went unto Rome, and entered into the senate, and 

said, Jonathan the high priest, and the people of the 

Jews, sent us unto you, to the end ye should renew 

the friendship, which ye had with them, and league, 15 

as in former time. Upon this the Romans gave them 

letters unto the governors of every place, that they 

should bring them into tlie land of Judea peaceably. 

And this is the copy of the letters which Jonathan 
wrote to the Lacedemonians : 20 

Jonathan the high priest, and the elders of the 
nation, and the priests, and the other people of the 
Jews, unto the Lacedemonians their brethren send 
greeting : There were letters sent in times past unto 
Onias the high priest from Darius, who reigned then ^s 
among you, to signify that ye are our brethren, as the 
copy here underwritten doth specify. At which 
time Onias entreated the ambassador that was sent 
honourably, and received the letters, wherein declara- 
G 69 



Ch. 12 ; Ver. 8-19. ^ First Book 

Letter to tion was made of the league and friendship. There- 

the Lace- fore we also, albeit we need none of these things, for 

damonians that we have the holy books of scripture in our hands 

to comfort us, have nevertheless attempted to send 

5 unto you for the renewing of brotherhood and friend- 
ship, lest we should become strangers unto you 
altogether : for there is a long time passed since ye 
sent unto us. We therefore at all times without 
ceasing, both in our feasts, and other convenient days, 

10 do remember you in the sacrifices which we offer, 
and in our prayers, as reason is, and as it becometh 
us to think upon our brethren : and we are right glad 
of your honour. As for ourselves, we have had great 
troubles and wars on every side, forsomuch as the 

15 kings that are round about us have fought against us. 
Howbeit we would not be troublesome unto you, nor 
to others of our confederates and friends, in these 
wars : for we have help from heaven that succoureth 
us, so as we are delivered from our enemies, and our 

20 enemies are brought under foot. For this cause we 
chose Numenius the son of Antiochus, and Antipater 
the son of Jason, and sent them unto the Romans, to 
renew the amity that we had with them, and the 
former league. We commanded them also to go unto 

25 you, and to salute you, and to deliver you our letters con- 
cerning the renewing of our brotherhood. Wherefore 
now ye shall do well to give us an answer thereto. 

And this is the copy of the letters which Oniares 
sent. 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 12; Ver. 20-31. 

Areus king of the Lacedemonians to Onias the Reply of 
high priest, greeting : It is found in writing, that the the Lace- 
Lacederaonians and Jews are brethren, and that they damonians 
are of the stock of Abraham : now therefore, since 
this is come to our knowledge, ye shall do well to 5 
write unto us of your prosperity. We do write back 
again to you, that your cattle and goods are our's, 
and our's are your's. We do command therefore 
eur ambassadors to make report unto you on this 
wise. 10 

Now when Jonathan heard that Demetrius' princes 
were come to fight against him with a greater host 
than afore, he removed from Jerusalem, and met them 
in the land of Amathis : for he gave them no respite 
to enter his country. He sent spies also unto their 15 
tents, who came again, and told him that they were 
appointed to come upon them in the night season. 
Wherefore so soon as the sun was down, Jonathan 
commanded his men to watch, and to be in arms, 
that all the night long they might be ready to fight : 20 
also he sent forth centinels round about the host. But 
when the adversaries heard that Jonathan and his men 
were ready for battle, they feared, and trembled in 
their hearts, and they kindled fires in their camp. 
Howbeit Jonathan and his company knew it not till 25 
the morning : for they saw the lights burning. 

Then Jonathan pursued after them, but overtook 
them not : for they were gone over the river Eleu- 
therus. Wherefore Jonathan turned to the Arabians, 



Ch. 12 ; Ver. 31-41- "^^ First Book 

Tryphon's who were called Zabadeans, and smote them, and 
Plot took their spoils. And removing thence, he came 
against to Damascus, and so passed through all the country. 
Jonathan Simon also went forth, and passed through the 
5 country unto Ascalon, and the holds there adjoining, 
from whence he turned aside to Joppe, and won it. 
For he had heard that they would deliver the hold 
unto them that took Demetrius' part ; wherefore he 
set a garrison there to keep it. 
10 After this came Jonathan home again, and calling 
the elders of the people together, he consulted with 
them about building strong holds in Judea, and 
making the walls of Jerusalem higher, and raising a 
great mount between the tower and the city, for to 
IS separate it from the city, that so it might be alone, 
that men might neither sell nor buy in it. Upon 
this they came together to build up the city, foras- 
much as part of the wall toward the brook on the 
east side was fallen down, and they repaired that 
2o which was called Caphenatha. Simon also set up 
Adida in Sephela, and made it strong with gates and 
bars. 

Now Tryphon went about to get the kingdom of 
Asia, and to kill Antiochus the king, that he might 
25 set the crown upon his own head. Howbeit he was 
afraid that Jonathan would not suffer him, and that 
he would fight against him ; wherefore he sought a 
way how to take Jonathan, that he might kill him. So 
he removed, and came to Bethsan. Then Jonathan 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 12 ; Ver. 41-50. 

went out to meet him with forty thousand men chosen Capture of 
for the battle, and came to Bethsan. Jonathan 

Now when Tryphon saw that Jonathan came 
with so great a force, he durst not stretch his hand 
against him ; but received him honourably, and com- 5 
mended him unto all his friends, and gave him gifts, 
and commanded his men of war to be as obedient 
unto him, as to himself. Unto Jonathan also he 
said, Why hast thou put all this people to so great 
trouble, seeing there is no war betwixt us ? There- 10 
fore send them now home again, and choose a few 
men to wait on thee, and come thou with me to 
Ptolemais, for I will give it thee, and the rest of the 
strong holds and forces, and all that have any charge : 
as for me, I will return and depart : for this is the 15 
cause of my coming. So Jonathan believing him did 
as he bade him, and sent away his host, who went 
into the land of Judea. And with himself he re- 
tained but three thousand men, of whom he sent two 
thousand into Galilee, and one thousand went with 20 
him. 

Now as soon as Jonathan entered into Ptolemais, 
they of Ptolemais shut the gates, and took him, and 
all them that came with him they slew with the 
sword. Then sent Tryphon an host of footmen and 25 
horsemen into Galilee, and into the great plain, to 
destroy all Jonathan's company. But when they 
knew that Jonathan and they that were with him 
were taken and slain, they encouraged one another, 
73 



Ch. 13; Ver. 1-7. ^ First Book 

Simon and went close together, prepared to fight. They 

Maccabeus therefore that followed upon them, perceiving that 

succeeds as they were ready to fight for their lives, turned back 

Leader again. Whereupon they all came into the land of 

5 Judea peaceably, and there they bewailed Jonathan, 

and them that were with him, and they were sore 

afraid ; wherefore all Israel made great lamentation. 

Then all the heathen that were round about them 

sought to destroy them : for said they, They have no 

lo captain, nor any to help them : now therefore let us 

make war upon them, and take away their memorial 

from among men. 

* Now when Simon heard that Tryphon had 
gathered together a great host to invade the land of 
J5 Judea, and destroy it, and saw that the people was in 
great trembling and fear, he went up to Jerusalem, 
and gathered the people together, and gave them 
exhortation, saying. Ye yourselves know what great 
things I, and my brethren, and my father's house, 
20 have done for the laws and the sanctuary, the battles 
also and troubles which we have seen, by reason 
whereof all my brethren are slain for Israel's sake, 
and I am left alone. Now therefore be it far from 
me, that I should spare mine own life in any time 
25 of trouble : for I am no better than my brethren. 
Doubtless I will avenge my nation, and the sanctuary, 
and our wives, and our children : for all the heathen 
are gathered to destroy us of very malice. 

Now as soon as the people heard these words, 
74 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 13 : Ver. 7-19. 

their spirit revived. And they answered with a loud Tryphon'i 
voice, saying, Thou shalt be our leader instead of Renenued 
Judas and Jonathan thy brother. Fight thou our Deceit 
battles, and whatsoever thou commandest us, that 
will we do. So then he gathered together all the 5 
men of war, and made haste to finish the walls of 
Jerusalem, and he fortified it round about. Also he 
sent Jonathan the son of Absalom, and with him 
a great power, to Joppe : who casting out them that 
were therein remained there in it. 10 

So Tryphon removed from Ptolemais with a great 
power to invade the land of Judea, and Jonathan was 
with him in ward. But Simon pitched his tents at 
Adida, over against the plain. Now when Tryphon 
knew that Simon was risen up instead of his brother 13 
Jonathan, and meant to join battle with him, he sent 
messengers unto him, saying. Whereas we have 
Jonathan thy brother in hold, it is for money that he 
is owing unto the king's treasure, concerning the 
business that was committed unto him. Wherefore 20 
now send an hundred talents of silver, and two of 
his sons for hostages, that when he is at liberty he 
may not revolt from us, and we will let him go. 

Hereupon Simon, albeit he perceived that they 
spake deceitfully unto him, yet sent he the money 25 
and the children, lest peradventure he should procure 
to himself great hatred of the people : who might have 
said. Because I sent him not the money and the 
children, therefore is Jonathan dead. So he seat 

75 



Ch. 13; Ver. i9-2g. ^ First Book 

Death o/"them the children and the hundred talents : howbeit 

Jonathan Tryphon dissembled, neither would he let Jonathan 

go. And after this came Tryphon to invade the 

land, and destroy it, going round about by the way 

5 that leadeth unto Adora : but Simon and his host 
marched against him in every place, wheresoever he 
went. Now they that were in the tower sent 
messengers unto Tryphon, to the end that he should 
hasten his coming unto them by the wilderness, and 

10 send them victuals. Wherefore Tryphon made 
ready all his horsemen to come that night : but there 
fell a very great snow, by reason whereof he came 
not. So he departed, and came into the country of 
Galaad. And when he came near to Bascama, he 

15 slew Jonathan, who was buried there. Afterward 
Tryphon returned and went into his own land. 

Then sent Simon, and took the bones of Jonathan 
his brother, and buried them in Modin, the city of 
his fathers. And all Israel made great lamentation 

20 for him, and bewailed him many days. Simon also 
built a monument upon the sepulchre of his father 
and his brethren, and raised it aloft to the sight, 
with hewn stone behind and before. Moreover he 
set up seven pyramids, one against another, for his 

25 father, and his mother, and his four brethren. And 
in these he made cunning devices, about the which 
he set great pillars, and upon the pillars he made 
all their armour for a perpetual memory, and by 
the armour ships carved, that they might be seen of 
76 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 13 ; Ver. 29-40. 

all that sail on the sea. This is the sepulchre Simon sends 
which he made at Modin, and it standeth yet unto to Demet~ 
this day. rlus 

Now Tryphon dealt deceitfully with the young 
king Antiochus, and slew him. And he reigned in 5 
his stead, and crowned himself king of Asia, and 
brought a great calamity upon the land. Then 
Simon built up the strong holds in Judea, and fenced 
them about with high towers, and great walls, 
and gates, and bars, and laid up victuals therein. 10 
Moreover Simon chose men, and sent to king 
Demetrius, to the end he should give the land an 
immunity, because all that Tryphon did was to 
spoil. Unto whom king Demetrius answered and 
wrote after this manner : 15 

King Demetrius unto Simon the high priest, and 
friend of kings, as also unto the elders and nation 
of the Jews, sendeth greeting : The golden crown, 
and the scarlet robe, which ye sent unto us, we have 
received : and we are ready to make a stedfast peace 20 
with you, yea, and to write unto our officers, to 
confirm the immunities which we have granted. 
And whatsoever covenants we have made with you 
shall stand ; and the strong holds, which ye have 
builded, shall be your own. As for any oversight or 25 
fault committed unto this day, we forgive it, and the 
crown tax also, which ye owe us : and if there were 
any other tribute paid in Jerusalem, it shall no more 
be paid. And look who are meet among you to be 



Ch. 13; Ver. 40-49. ^ First Book 

Simon in our court, let them be enrolled, and let there be 

becomes peace betwixt us. Thus the yoke of the heathen 

High was taken away from Israel in the hundred and 

Priest seventieth year. Then the people of Israel began 

5 to write in their instruments and contracts, In the 

first year of Simon the high priest, the governor and 

leader of the Jews. 

. In those days Simon camped against Gaza, and 

besieged it round about ; he made also an engine of 

10 war, and set it by the city, and battered a certain 

tower, and took it. And they that were in the 

engine leaped into the city ; whereupon there was 

a great uproar in the city : insomuch as the people 

of the city rent their clothes, and climbed upon the 

15 walls with their wives and children, and cried with 

a loud voice, beseeching Simon to grant them peace. 

And they said, Deal not with us according to our 

wickedness, but according to thy mercy. So Simon 

was appeased toward them, and fought no more 

20 against them, but put them out of the city, and 

cleansed the houses wherein the idols were, and 

so entered into it with songs and thanksgiving. 

Yea, he put all uncleanness out of it, and 

placed such men there as would keep the law, 

25 and made it stronger than it was before, and 

built therein a dwelling place for himself. They 

also of the tower in Jerusalem were kept so strait, 

that they could neither come forth, nor go into the 

country, nor buv, nor sell : wherefore they were 

73 



of Maccabees ^o» Ch. 14; Ver. 1-4. 

in great distress for want of victuals, and a great Simon 

number of them perished through famine. Then makes John 

cried they to Simon, beseeching him to be at one Captain 

with them : which thing he granted them ; and 

when he had put them out from thence, he cleansed s 

the tower from pollutions : and entered into it the 

three and twentieth day of the second month, in the 

hundred seventy and first year, with thanksgiving, 

and branches of palm trees, and with harps, and 

cymbals, and with viols, and hymns, and songs : be- *° 

cause there was destroyed a great enemy out of 

Israel. He ordained also that that day should be 

kept every year with gladness. Moreover the hill 

of the temple that was by the tower he made stronger 

than it was, and there he dwelt himself with his is 

company. And when Simon saw that John his son 

was a valiant man, he made him captain of all the 

hosts ; and he dwelt in Gazara. 

* Now in the hundred threescore and twelfth year 

king Demetrius gathered his forces together, and 20 

went into Media, to get him help to fight against 

Tryphon. But when Arsaces, the king of Persia 

and Media, heard that Demetrius was entered within 

his borders, he sent one of his princes to take him 

alive : who went and smote the host of Demetrius, 2s 

and took him, and brought him to Arsaces, by whom 

he was put in ward. 

As for the land of Judea, that was quiet all the 
days of Simon ; for he sought the good of his 
79 



Ch. 14 ; Ver. 4-16. '^5' First Book 

Simon's nation in such wise, as that evermore his authority 
Wise Rule and honour pleased them well. And as he was 
honourable in all his acts, so in this, that he took 
Joppe for an haven, and made an entrance to the isles 
5 of the sea, and enlarged the bounds of his nation, 
and recovered the country, and gathered together a 
great number of captives, and had the dominion of 
Gazara, and Bethsura, and the tower, out of the 
which he took all uncleanness, neither was there any 

lo that resisted him. Then did they till their ground 
in peace, and the earth gave her increase, and the 
trees of the field their fruit. The ancient men sat 
all in the streets, communing together of good things, 
and the young men put on glorious and warlike 

13 apparel. He provided victuals for the cities, and set 
in them all manner of munition, so that his honourable 
name was renowned unto the end of the world. He 
made peace in the land, and Israel rejoiced with 
great joy : 

20 For every man sat under his vine and his fig tree, 
and there was none to fray them : neither was there 
any left in the land to fight against them : yea, the 
kings themselves were overthrown in those days. 
Moreover he strengthened all those of his people 

25 that were brought low : the law he searched out ; 
and every contemner of the law and wicked person 
he took away. He beautified the sanctuary, and 
multiplied the vessels of the temple. 

Now when it was heard at Rome, and as far as 
80 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 14; Ver. 16-25. 

Sparta, that Jonathan was dead, they were very Rome ^ 
sorry. But as soon as they heard that his brother Sparta 
Simon was made high priest in his stead, and ruled reneiv the 
the country, and the cities therein : they wrote unto League 
him in tables of brass, to renew the friendship and 5 
league which they had made with Judas and 
Jonathan his brethren : which writings were read 
before the congregation at Jerusalem. 

And this is the copy of the letters that the 
Lacedemonians sent ; the rulers of the Lacedemonians, 10 
with the city, unto Simon the high priest, and the 
elders, and priests, and residue of the people of the 
Jews, our brethren, send greeting : The ambassadors 
that were sent unto our people certified us of your 
glory and honour : wherefore we were glad of their 15 
coming, and did register the things that they spake 
in the counsel of the people in this manner ; Numenius 
son of Antiochus, and Antipater son of Jason, the 
Jews' ambassadors, came unto us to renew the 
friendship they had with us. And it pleased the 20 
people to entertain the men honourably, and to put 
the copy of their ambassage in publick records, to the 
end the people of the Lacedemonians might have a 
memorial thereof: furthermore we have written a 
copy thereof unto Simon the high priest. 23 

After this Simon sent Numenius to Rome with a 
great shield of gold of a thousand pound weight, to 
confirm the league with them. Whereof when the 
people heard, they said, What thanks shall we give 



Ch. 14 ; Ver. 25-34- ^ First Book 

The to Simon and his sons ? for he and his brethren and 
People' s the house of his father have established Israel, and 
Tribute to chased away in fight their enemies from them, and 
the Macca- f^ovArmtd. their liberty. So then they wrote It in 
bees tables of brass, which they set upon pillars in mount 
Sion : and this is the copy of the writing ; The 
eighteenth day of the month Elul, in the hundred 
threescore and twelfth year, being the third year of 
Simon the high priest, at Saramel in the great con- 
ic gregation of the priests, and people, and rulers of the 
nation, and elders of the country, were these things 
notified unto us. Forasmuch as oftentimes there 
have been wars in the country, wherein for the 
maintenance of their sanctuary, and the law, Simon 
15 the son of Mattathias, of the posterity of Jarib, 
together with his brethren, put themselves in jeopardy, 
and resisting the enemies of their nation did their 
nation great honour : (for after that Jonathan, having 
gathered his nation together, and been their high 
20 priest, was added to his people, their enemies purposed 
to invade their country, that they might destroy it, 
and lay hands on the sanctuary : at which time Simon 
rose up, and fought for his nation, and spent much of 
his own substance, and armed the valiant men of his 
25 nation, and gave them wages, and fortified the cities 
of Judea, together with Bethsura, that lieth upon the 
borders of Judea, where the armour of the enemies 
had been before ; but he set a garrison of Jews 
there : moreover he fortified Joppe, which lieth upon 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 14 ; Ver. 34-4^ 

the sea, and Gazara, that bordereth upon Azotus, The 
where the enemies had dwelt before : but he placed People's 
Jews there, and furnished them with all things con- Tribute to 
venient for the reparation thereof.) the Macca- 

The people therefore, seeing the acts of Simon, lees 
and unto what glory he thought to bring his nation, 
made him their governor and chief priest, because he 
had done all these things, and for the justice and 
faith which he kept to his nation, and for that he 
sought by all means to exalt his people. For in his 10 
time things prospered in his hands, so that the heathen 
were taken out of their country, and they also that 
were in the city of David in Jerusalem, who had 
made themselves a tower, out of which they issued, 
and polluted all about the sanctuary, and did much 15 
hurt in the holy place : but he placed Jews therein, 
and fortified it for the safety of the country and the 
city, and raised up the walls of Jerusalem. King 
Demetrius also confirmed him in the high priesthood 
according to those things, and made him one of his 20 
friends, and honoured him with great honour. For 
he had heard say, that the Romans had called the 
Jews their friends and confederates and brethren ; 
and that they had entertained the ambassadors of 
Simon honourably ; also that the Jews and priests 25 
were well pleased that Simon should be their 
governor and high priest for ever, until there should 
arise a faithful prophet ; moreover that he should be 
their captain, and should take charge of the sanctuary, 
83 



Ch. is;Ver. 1-2. ^ First Book 

Aniiochus to set them over their works, and over the country, 

ivr'ites to and over the armour, and over the fortresses, that, / 

Simon say, he should take charge of the sanctuary ; beside 

this, that he should be obeyed of every man, and 

5 that all the writings in the country should be made in 
his name, and that he should be clothed in purple, and 
wear gold : also that it should be lawful for none of 
the people or priests to break any of these things, or 
to gainsay his words, or to gather an assembly in the 

10 country without him, or to be clothed in purple, or 
wear a buckle of gold : and whosoever should do 
otherwise, or break any of these things, he should be 
punished. 

Thus it liked all the people to deal with Simon, 

IS and to do as hath been said. Then Simon accepted 
hereof, and was well pleased to be high priest, and 
captain and governor of the Jews and priests, and to 
defend them all. So they commanded that this 
writing should be put in tables of brass, and that they 

ao should be set up within the compass of the sanctuary 
in a conspicuous place ; also that the copies thereof 
should be laid up in the treasury, to the end that 
Simon and his sons might have them. 
* Moreover Antiochus son of Demetrius the king 

25 sent letters from the isles of the sea unto Simon the 
priest and prince of the Jews, and to all the people ; 
the contents whereof were these : 

King Antiochus to Simon the high priest and 
prince of his nation, and to the people of the Jews, 
84 



of Maccabees ^^ Ch. 15; Ver. 2-12. 

greeting : Forasmuch as certain pestilent men have Antlochus 
usurped the kingdom of our fathers, and my purpose attacks 
is to challenge it again, that I may restore it to the Tryphon 
old estate, and to that end have gathered a multitude 
of foreign soldiers together, and prepared ships of war ; 5 
my meaning also being to go through the country, 
that I may be avenged of them that have destroyed 
it, and made many cities in the kingdom desolate : 
now therefore I confirm unto thee all the oblations 
which the kings before me granted thee, and what- 1° 
soever gifts besides they granted. I give thee leave 
also to coin money for thy country with thine own 
stamp. And as concerning Jerusalem and the 
sanctuary, let them be free ; and all the armour that 
thou hast made, and fortresses that thou hast built, 15 
and keepest in thine hands, let them remain unto 
thee. And if any thing be, or shall be, owing to the 
king, let it be forgiven thee from this time forth for 
evermore. Furthermore, when we have obtained our 
kingdom, we will honour thee, and thy nation, and 20 
thy temple, with great honour, so that your honour 
shall be known throughout the world. 

In the hundred threescore and fourteenth year 
went Antiochus into the land of his fathers : at 
which time all the forces came together unto him, so 25 
that few were left with Tryphon. Wherefore being 
pursued by king Antiochus, he fled unto Dora, which 
lieth by the sea side : for he saw that troubles came 
upon him all at once, and that his forces had forsaken 
H 83 



Ch. IS ; Ver. 12-23, ^ First Book 

^nt'iochus him. Then camped Antiochus against Dora, having 

encamps with him an hundred and twenty thousand men of 

against war, and eight thousand horsemen. And when he 

Dora had compassed the city round about, and joined 

5 ships close to the town on the sea side, he vexed 

the city by land and by sea, neither suffered he any 

to go out or in. 

. In the mean season came Numenius and his com- 
pany from Rome, having letters to the kings and 
10 countries ; wherein were written these things : 

Lucius, consul of the Romans unto king Ptolemee, 
greeting : The Jews' ambassadors, our friends and 
confederates, came unto us to renew the old friend- 
ship and league, being sent from Simon the high 
13 priest, and from the people of the Jews : and they 
brought a shield of gold of a thousand pound. We 
thought it good therefore to write unto the kings and 
countries, that they should do them no harm, nor 
fight against them, their cities, or countries, nor yet 
2o aid their enemies against them. It seemed also good 
to us to receive the shield of them. If therefore 
there be any pestilent fellows, that have fled from 
their country unto you, deliver them unto Simon the 
high priest, that he may punish them according to 
»5 their own law. 

The same things wrote he likewise unto Demetrius 
the king, and Attalus, to Ariarathes, and Arsaces, 
and to all the countries, and to Sampsames, and the 
Lacedemonians, and to Delus, and Myndus, and 



ofMaccabeesi)^ Ch. 15; Ver. 23-32. 

Sicyon, and Caria, and Samos, and Pamphylia, and Ant'iochus 
Lycia, and Halicarnassus, and Rhodus, and Phaselis, estranges 
and Cos, and Side, and Aradus, and Gortyna, and himself 
Cnidus, and Cyprus, and Cyrene. And the co^yfrom Simon 
hereof they wrote to Simon the high priest. 5 

So Antiochus the king camped against Dora the 
second day, assaulting it continually, and making 
engines, by which means he shut up Tryphon, that 
he could neither go out nor in. At that time Simon 
sent him two thousand chosen men to aid him ; silver lo 
also, and gold, and much armour. Nevertheless he 
would not receive them, but brake all the covenants 
which he had made with him afore, and became 
strange unto him. Furthermore he sent unto him 
Athenobius, one of his friends, to commune with xs 
him, and say. 

Ye withhold Joppe and Gazara, with the tower 
that is in Jerusalem, which are cities of my realm. 
The borders thereof ye have wasted, and done great 
hurt in the land, and got the dominion of many 20 
places within my kingdom. Now therefore deliver 
the cities which ye have taken, and the tributes of 
the places, whereof ye have gotten dominion without 
the borders of Judea : or else give me for them five 
hundred talents of silver ; and for the harm that ye 25 
have done, and the tributes of the cities, other five 
hundred talents : if not, we will come and fight 
against you. 

So Athenobius the king's friend came to Jeru- 
87 



Ch. IS ; Ver. 32-41- ^ First Book 

Simon s salem : and when he saw the glory of Simon, and 
Message to the cupboard of gold and silver plate, and his great 
Antiochus attendance, he was astonished, and told him the king's 
message. 

5 Then answered Simon, and said unto him, 

We have neither taken other men's land, nor 
holden that which appertaineth to others, but the in- 
heritance of our fathers, which our enemies had 
wrongfully in possession a certain time. Wherefore 

10 we, having opportunity, hold the inheritance of our 
fathers. And whereas thou demandest Joppe and 
Gazara, albeit they did great harm unto the people 
in our country, yet will we give an hundred talents 
for them. Hereunto Athenobius answered him not 

15 a word ; but returned in a rage to the king, and made 
report unto him of these speeches, and of the glory 
of Simon, and of all that he had seen : whereupon 
the king was exceeding wroth. In the mean time 
fled Tryphon by ship unto Orthosias. 

20 Then the king made Cendebeus captain of the sea 
coast, and gave him an host of footmen and horsemen, 
and commanded him to remove his host toward 
Judea : also he commanded him to build up Cedron, 
and to fortify the gates, and to war against the people ; 

25 but as for the king himself, he pursued Tryphon. So 
Cendebeus came to Jamnia, and began to provoke 
the people, and to invade Judea, and to take the 
people prisoners, and slay them. And when he had 
built up Cedron, he set horsemen there, and an host 



of Maccabees k^ Ch. i6; Ver. i-8. 

of footmen, to the end that issuing out they might Cendebeus 
make outroads upon the ways of Judea, as the king defeated by 
had commanded him. the Macca- 

* Then came up John from Gazara, and told Simon bees 
his father what Cendebeus had done. Wherefore 5 
Simon called his two eldest sons, Judas and John, 
and said unto them, I, and my brethren, and my 
father's house, have ever from our youth unto this 
day fought against the enemies of Israel ; and things 
have prospered so well in our hands, that we have 10 
delivered Israel oftentimes. But now I am old, and 
ye, by God's mercy, are of a sufficient age : be ye 
instead of me and my brother, and go and fight for 
our nation, and the help from heaven be with you. 
So he chose out of the country twenty thousand men 15 
of war with horsemen, who went out against Cende- 
beus, and rested that night at Modin. And when as 
they rose in the morning, and went into the plain, 
behold, a mighty great host both of footmen and 
horsemen came against them : howbeit there was a 20 
water brook betwixt them. So he and his people 
pitched over against them : and when he saw that 
the people were afraid to go over the water brook, he 
went first over himself, and then the men seeing him 
passed through after him. That done, he divided his 25 
men, and set the horsemen in the midst of the foot- 
men : for the enemies' horsemen were very many. 
Then sounded they with the holy trumpets : where- 
upon Cendebeus and his host were put to flight, so 



Ch. i6; Ver. S-17. ^ First Book 

Death o/"that many of them were slain, and the remnant gat 

Simon them to the strong hold. At that time was Judas 

John's brother wounded ; but John still followed 

after them, until he came to Cedron, which Cendebeus 

5 had built. So they fled even unto the towers in the 

fields of Azotus; wherefore he burned it with fire: so 

that there were slain of them about two thousand men. 

Afterward he returned into the landof Judea in peace. 

Moreover in the plain of Jericho was Ptolemeus 

10 the son of Abubus made captain, and he had abundance 
of silver and gold : for he was the high priest's son 
in law. Wherefore his heart being lifted up, he 
thought to get the country to himself, and thereupon 
consulted deceitfully against Simon and his sons to 

15 destroy them. Now Simon was visiting the cities 
that were in the country, and taking care for the 
good ordering of them ; at which time he came down 
himself to Jericho with his sons, Mattathias and 
Judas, in the hundred threescore and seventeenth 

20 year, in the eleventh month, called Sabat : where the 
son of Abubus receiving them deceitfully into a little 
hold, called Docus, which he had built, made them 
a great banquet : howbeit he had hid men there. So 
when Simon and his sons had drunk largely, Ptole- 

25 mee and his men rose up, and took their weapons, 
and came upon Simon into the banqueting place, and 
slew him, and his two sons, and certain of his servants. 
In which doing he committed a great treachery, and 
recompensed evil for good, 
so 



i 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 16; Ver, 18-24. 

Then Ptolemee wrote these things, and sent to the Ptolenn's 
king, that he should send him an host to aid him, Treachery 
and he would deliver him the country and cities. 
He sent others also to Gazara to kill John : and unto 
the tribunes he sent letters to come unto him, that he 5 
might give them silver, and gold, and rewards. And 
others he sent to take Jerusalem, and the mountain 
of the temple. Now one had run afore to Gazara, 
and told John that his father and brethren were slain, 
and, quoth he, Ptolemee hath sent to slay thee also. 10 
Hereof when he heard, he was sore astonished: so 
he laid hands on them that were come to destroy 
him, and slew them ; for he knew that they sought 
to make him away. 

As concerning the rest of the acts of John, and his is 
wars, and worthy deeds which he did, and the 
building of the walls which he made, and his doings, 
behold, these are written in the chronicles of his 
priesthood, from the time he was made high priest 
after his father. 



91 



The Second Book of the 

Maccabees 

Greetings '' I ^HE brethren, the Jews that be at Jerusalem and 

of the Jeivs j_ in the land of Judea, wish unto the brethren, 

ofjudeato the Jews that are throughout Egypt, health and 

those in peace : God be gracious unto you, and remember 

Egypt his covenant that he made with Abraham, Isaac, and 

Jacob, his faithful servants ; and give you all an 

heart to serve him, and to do his will, with a good 

courage and a willing mind ; and open your hearts in 

his law and commandments, and send you peace, and 

lo hear your prayers, and be at one with you, and never 

forsake you in time of trouble. And now we be 

here praying for you. What time as Demetrius 

reigned, in the hundred threescore and ninth year, 

we the Jews wrote unto you in the extremity of 

13 trouble that came upon us in those years, from the 

time that Jason and his company revolted from the 

holy land and kingdom, and burned the porch, and 

shed innocent blood : then we prayed unto the Lord, 

and were heard ; we offered also sacrifices and fine 

20 flour, and lighted the lamps, and set forth the loaves. 

And now see that ye keep the feast of tabernacles in 

the month Casleu. 

In the hundred fourscore and eighth year, the 



Maccabees 5o» Ch. i ; Ver. 10-18. 

people that were at Jerusalem and in Judea, and the The Feast 

council, and Judas, sent greeting and health unto proclaimed 

Aristobulus, king Ptolemeus' master, who was of the 

stock of the anointed priests, and to the Jews that 

were in Egypt : insomuch as God hath delivered us 5 

from great perils, we thank him highly, as having 

been in battle against a king. For he cast them out 

that fought within the holy city. For when the 

leader was come into Persia, and the army with him 

that seemed invincible, they were slain in the temple to 

of Nanea by the deceit of Nanea's priests. For 

Antiochus, as though he would marry her, came into 

the place, and his friends that were with him, to 

receive money in name of a dowry. Which when 

the priests of Nanea had set forth, and he was entered is 

with a small company into the compass of the temple, 

they shut the temple as soon as Antiochus was come 

in : and opening a privy door of the roof, they threw 

stones like thunderbolts, and struck down the captain, 

hewed them in pieces, smote off their heads, and 20 

cast them to those that were without. Blessed be 

our God in all things, who hath delivered up the 

ungodly. 

Therefore whereas we are now purposed to keep 
the purification of the temple upon the five and 25 
twentieth day of the month Casleu, we thought it 
necessary to certify you thereof, that ye also might 
keep it, as the feast of the tabernacles, and of the fire, 
•which <was given us when Neemias offered sacrifice, 
93 



Ch. I ; Ver. 18-27. '^ Second Book 

Prayer ofzher that he had builded the temple and the altar. 
the Jews in For when our fathers were led into Persia, the priests 
Judea that were then devout took, the fire of the altar privily 
and hid it in an hollow place of a pit without water, 
s where they kept it sure, so that the place was un- 
known to all men. Now after many years, when it 
pleased God, Neemias, being sent from the king of 
Persia, did send of the posterity of those priests that 
had hid it to the fire : but when they told us they 
10 found no fire, but thick water ; then commanded he 
them to draw it up, and to bring it ; and when the 
sacrifices were laid on, Neemias commanded the 
priests to sprinkle the wood and the things laid there- 
upon with the water. When this was done, and the 
15 time came that the sun shone, which afore was hid in 
the cloud, there was a great fire kindled, so that every 
man marvelled. And the priests made a prayer 
whilst the sacrifice was consuming, / say^ both the 
priests, and all the rest, Jonathan beginning, and the 
20 rest answering thereunto, as Neemias did. And the 
prayer was after this manner : 

O Lord, Lord God, Creator of all things, who 
art fearful and strong, and righteous, and merciful, 
and the only and gracious King, the only giver of all 
85 things, the only just, almighty, and everlasting, thou 
that deliverest Israel from all trouble, and didst 
choose the fathers, and sanctify them : receive the 
sacrifice for thy whole people Israel, and preserve 
thine own portion, and sanctify it. Gather those 



ofMaccabees5^ Ch. 2; Ver. 1-3. 

together that are scattered from us, deliver them that The 
serve among the heathen, look upon them that are Sacrifices 
despised and abhorred, and let the heathen know that restored 
thou art our God. Punish them that oppress us, and 
with pride do us wrong. Plant thy people again in 5 
thy holy place, as Moses has spoken. 

And the priest sung psalms of thanksgiving. Now 
when the sacrifice was consumed, Neemias commanded 
the water that was left to be poured on the great 
stones. When this was done, there was kindled a 10 
flame : but it was consumed by the light that shined 
from the altar. So when this matter was known, it 
was told the king of Persia, that in the place, where 
the priests that were led away had hid the fire, there 
appeared water, and that Neemias had purified the 15 
sacrifices therewith. Then the king, inclosing the 
place, made it holy, after he had tried the matter. 
And the king took many gifts, and bestowed thereof 
on those whom he would gratify. And Neemias 
called this thing Naphthar, which is as much as to 20 
say, a cleansing : but many men call it Nephi. 
* It is also found in the records, that Jeremy the 
prophet commanded them that were carried away to 
take off the fire, as it hath been signified : and how 
that the prophet, having given them the law, charged 25 
them not to forget the commandments of the Lord, 
and that they should not err in their minds, when 
they see images of silver and gold, with their orna- 
ments. And with other such speeches exhorted he 
9S 



Ch. 2 ; Ver. 3-13- ^ Second Book 

Story of them, that the law should not depart from their 
Jeremy t5f hearts. It was also contained in the same writing, 
the Holy that the prophet, being warned of God, commanded 
Things the tabernacle and the ark to go with him, as he 
5 went forth into the mountain, where Moses climbed 
up, and saw the heritage of God. And when Jeremy 
came thither, he found an hollow cave, wherein he 
laid the tabernacle, and the ark, and the altar of 
incense, and so stopped the door. And some of 
10 those that followed him came to mark the way, but 
they could not find it. Which when Jeremy per- 
ceived, he blamed them, saying. As for that place, 
it shall be unknown until the time that God gather 
his people again together, and receive them unto 
IS mercy. Then shall the Lord shew them these 
things, and the glory of the Lord shall appear, and 
the cloud also, as it was shewed under Moses, and as 
when Solomon desired that the place might be 
honourably sanctified. 
20 It was also declared, that he being wise offered 
the sacrifice of dedication, and of the finishing of the 
temple. And as when Moses prayed unto the Lord, 
the fire came down from heaven, and consumed the 
sacrifices : even so prayed Solomon also, and the fire 
25 came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt 
offerings. And Moses said, Because the sin offering 
was not to be eaten, it was consumed. So Solomon 
kept those eight days. 

The same things also were reported in the writings 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 2; Ver. 13-22. 

and commentaries of Neemias : and how he founding Aspiration 
a library gathered together the acts of the kings, and of the yetus 
the prophets, and of David, and the epistles of the to become a 
kings concerning the holy gifts. In like manner also Nation 
Judas gathered together all those things that were again 
lost by reason of the war we had, and they remain 
with us. Wherefore if ye have need thereof, send 
some to fetch them unto you. 

Whereas we then are about to celebrate the puri- 
fication, we have written unto you, and ye shall do 10 
well, if ye keep the same days. We hope also, that 
the God, that delivered all his people, and gave them 
all an heritage, and the kingdom, and the priesthood, 
and the sanctuary. As he promised in the law, will 
shortly have mercy upon us, and gather us together 15 
out of every land under heaven into the holy place : 
for he hath delivered us out of great troubles, and hath 
purified the place. 

Now as concerning Judas Maccabeus, and his 
brethren, and the purification of the great temple, 20 
and the dedication of the altar, and the wars against 
Antiochus Epiphanes, and Eupator his son, and the 
manifest signs that came from heaven unto those that 
behaved themselves manfully to their honour for 
Judaism : so that, being but a few, they overcame the 25 
whole country, and chased barbarous multitudes, and 
recovered again the temple renowned all the world over, 
and freed the city, and upheld the laws which were 
97 



Ch. 2 ; Ver. 22-32. ^ Second Book 

Preface to going down, the Lord being gracious unto them with 

the Second all favour : all these things, I say, being declared by 

Book Jason of Cyrene in five books, we will assay to 

abridge in one volume. For considering the infinite 

5 number, and the difficulty which they find that desire 
to look into the narrations of the story, for the variety 
of the matter, we have been careful, that they that 
will read may have delight, and that they that are 
desirous to commit to memory might have ease, and 

10 that all into whose hands it comes might have profit. 
Therefore to us, that have taken upon us this painful 
labour of abridging, it was not easy, but a matter of 
sweat and watching ; even as it is no ease unto him 
that prepareth a banquet, and seeketh the benefit of 

IS others : yet for the pleasuring of many we will under- 
take gladly this great pains ; leaving to the author the 
exact handling of every particular, and labouring to 
follow the rules of an abridgement. For as the 
master builder of a new house must care for the 

2o whole building ; but he that undertaketh to set it out, 
and paint it, must seek out fit things for the adorning 
thereof: even so I think it is with us. To stand 
upon every point, and go over things at large, and to 
be curious in particulars, belongeth to the first author 

25 of the story : but to use brevity, and avoid much 
labouring of the work, is to be granted to him that 
will make an abridgement. Here then will we 
begin the story : only adding thus much to that 
which hath been said, that it is a foolish thing to 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 3; Ver. 1-9. 

make a long prologue, and to be short in the story Stmon^s 

itself. Falsehoods 

regarding 
* Now when the holy city was inhabited with all fhe 
peace, and the laws were kept very well, because of Treasure 
the godliness of Onias the high priest, and his hatred 5 
of wickedness, it came to pass that even the kings 
themselves did honour the place, and magnify the 
temple with their best gifts ; insomuch that Seleucus 
king of Asia of his own revenues bare all the costs 
belonging to the service of the sacrifices. But one 10 
Simon of the tribe of Benjamin, who was made 
governor of the temple, fell out with the high priest 
about disorder in the city. And when he could not 
overcome Onias, he gat him to Apollonius the son of 
Thraseas, who then was governor of Celosyria and 15 
Phenice, and told him that the treasury in Jerusalem 
was full of infinite sums of money, so that the mul- 
titude of their riches, which did not pertain to the 
account of the sacrifices, was innumerable, and that it 
was possible to bring all into the king's hand. 20 

Now when Apollonius came to the king, and had 
shewed him of the money whereof he was told, the 
king chose out Heliodorus his treasurer, and sent him 
with a commandment to bring him the foresaid money. 
So forthwith Heliodorus took his journey, under a 23 
colour of visiting the cities of Celosyria and Phenice, 
but indeed to fulfil the king's purpose. And when 
he was come to Jerusalem, and had been courteously 

99 



Ch. 3 ; Ver. 9-17- ^ Second Book 

He/ioJorus received of the high priest of the city, he told him 

demands the what intelligence was given of the money, and declared 

Treasure wherefore he came, and asked if these things were so 

indeed. Then the high priest told him that there 

5 was such money laid up for the relief of widows and 

fatherless children : and that some of it belonged to 

Hircanus son of Tobias, a man of great dignity, and 

not as that wicked Simon had misinformed : the sum 

whereof in all was four hundred talents of silver, and 

lo two hundred of gold : and that it was altogether 
impossible that such wrongs should be done unto them, 
that had committed it to the holiness of the place, 
and to the majesty and inviolable sanctity of the temple, 
honoured over all the world. 

15 But Heliodorus, because of the king's command- 
ment given him, said. That in any wise it must be 
brought into the king's treasury. So at the day 
which he appointed he entered in to order this 
matter : wherefore there was no small agony through- 

ao out the whole city. But the priests, prostrating 
themselves before the altar in their priests' vestments, 
called unto heaven upon him that made a law con- 
cerning things given to be kept, that they should 
safely be preserved for such as had committed them 

25 to be kept. Then whoso had looked the high 
priest in the face, it would have wounded his heart : 
for his countenance and the changing of his colour 
declared the inward agony of his mind. For the 
man was so compassed with fear and horror of the 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 3; Ver. 17-26. 

body, that it was manifest to them that looked upon The 
him, what sorrow he had now in his heart. Others Genera/ 
ran flocking out of their houses to the general sup- Grief and 
plication, because the place was like to come into Dismay 
contempt. And the woftien, girt with sackcloth s 
under their breasts, abounded in the streets, and the 
virgins that were kept in ran, some to the gates, and 
some to the walls, and others looked out of the 
windows. And all, holding their hands toward 
heaven, made supplication. Then it would have lo 
pitied a man to see the falling down of the multitude 
of all sorts, and the fear of the high priest, being in 
such an agony. 

They then called upon the Almighty Lord to 
keep the things committed of trust safe and sure for 13 
those that had committed them. Nevertheless 
Heliodorus executed that which was decreed. Now 
as he was there present himself with his guard about 
the treasury, the Lord of spirits, and the Prince of 
all power, caused a great apparition, so that all that zo 
presumed to come in with him were astonished at 
the power of God, and fainted, and were sore 
afraid. For there appeared unto them an horse with 
a terrible rider upon him, and adorned with a very 
fair covering, and he ran fiercely, and smote at 25 
Heliodorus with his forefeet, and it seemed that he 
that sat upon the horse had complete harness of gold. 
Moreover two other young men appeared before 
him, notable in strength, excellent in beauty, and 



Ch. 3; Ver, 26-34. ^ Second Book 

Hel'todorus comely in apparel, who stood by him on either side, 

n.'racu- and scourged him continually, and gave him many 

lously sore stripes. And Heliodorus fell suddenly unto 

smitten the ground, and was compassed with great darkness : 

5 but they that were with him took him up, and put 

him into a litter. Thus him, that lately came with 

a great train and with all his guard into the said 

treasury, they carried out, being unable to help 

himself with his weapons : and manifestly they ac- 

10 knowledged the power of God : for he by the 

hand of God was cast down, and lay speechless 

without all hope of life. But they praised the Lord, 

that had miraculously honoured his own place : for 

the temple, which a little afore was full of fear and 

,5 trouble, when the Almighty Lord appeared, was 

filled with joy and gladness. 

Then straightways certain of Heliodorus' friends 
prayed Onias, that he would call upon the Most 
High to grant him his life, who lay ready to give up 
go the ghost. So the high priest, suspecting lest the 
king should misconceive that some treachery had 
been done to Heliodorus by the Jews, offered a 
sacrifice for the health of the man. Now as the 
high priest was making an atonement, the same 
25 young men in the same clothing appeared and stood 
beside Heliodorus, saying, Give Onias the high 
priest great thanks, insomuch as for his sake the 
Lord hath granted thee life : and seeing that thou 
hast been scourged from heaven, declare unto all men 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 4; Ver. 1-4. 

the mighty power of God. And when they had Simon 
spoken these words, they appeared no more. So stirs up 
Heliodorus, after he had offered sacrifice unto the Jealousies 
Lord, and made great vows unto him that had saved 
his life, and saluted Onias, returned with his host to 5 
the king. Then testified he to all men the works 
of the great God, which he had seen with his eyes. 

And when the king asked Heliodorus, who might 
be a fit man to be sent yet once again to Jerusalem, 
he said, If thou hast any enemy or traitor, send him 10 
thither, and thou shalt receive him well scourged, if 
he escape with his life : for in that place, no doubt, 
there is an especial power of God. For he that 
dwelleth in heaven hath his eye on that place, and 
defendeth it ; and he beateth and destroyeth them 15 
that come to hurt it. And the things concerning 
Heliodorus, and the keeping of the treasury, fell out 
on this sort. 

* This Simon now, of whom we spake afore, having 
been a bewrayer of the money, and of his country, 20 
slandered Onias, as if he had terrified Heliodorus, 
and been the worker of these evils. Thus was he 
bold to call him a traitor, that had deserved well of 
the city, and tendered his own nation, and was so 
zealous of the laws. But when their hatred went 25 
so far, that by one of Simon's faction murders were 
committed, Onias seeing the danger of this conten- 
tion, and that Apollonius, as being the governor of 
Celosyria and Phenice, did rage, and increase 



Ch. 4 ; Ver. 4-13- ^ Second Book 

Jason Simon's malice, he went to the king, not to be an 

becomes accuser of his countrymen, but seeking the good of 

ffig^ all, both publick and private : for he saw that it was 

Priest impossible that the state should continue quiet, and 

5 Simon leave his folly, unless the king did look 

thereunto. 

But after the death of Seleucus, when Antiochus, 
called Epiphanes, took the kingdom, Jason the 
brother of Onias laboured underhand to be high 
lo priest, promising unto the king by intercession 
three hundred and threescore talents of silver, and 
of another revenue eighty talents : beside this, he 
promised to assign an hundred and fifty more, if he 
might have licence to set him up a place for exercise, 
15 and for the training up of youth in the fashions of the 
heathen, and to write them of Jerusalem iy the name of 
Antiochians. Which when the king had granted, 
and he had gotten into his hand the rule, he forth- 
with brought his own nation to the Greekish fashion. 
20 And the royal privileges granted of special favour to the 
Jews by the means of John the father of Eupolemus, 
who went ambassador to Rome for amity and aid, 
he took away ; and putting down the governments 
which were according to the law, he brought up new 
25 customs against the law : for he built gladly a place 
of exercise under the tower itself, and brought the 
chief young men under his subjection, and made 
them wear a hat- 
Now such was the height of Greek fashions, and 
104 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 4 ; Ver. 13-21. 

increase of heathenish manners, through the exceed- Greek 

ing profaneness of Jason, that ungodly wretch, and Fashions 

no high priest ; that the priests had no courage to introduced 

serve any more at the altar, but despising the temple, 

and neglecting the sacrifices, hastened to be partakers 5 

of the unlawful allowance in the place of exercise, 

after the game of Discus called them forth ; not 

setting by the honours of their fathers, but liking the 

glory of the Grecians best of all. By reason whereof 

sore calamity came upon them : for they had them 10 

to be their enemies and avengers, whose custom they 

followed so earnestly, and unto whom they desired 

to be like in all things. For it is not a light thing 

to do wickedly against the laws of God : but the 

time following shall declare these things. 13 

Now when the game that was used every fifth 
year was kept at Tyrus, the king being present, this 
ungracious Jason sent special messengers from Jeru- 
salem, who were Antiochians, to carry three hundred 
drachms of silver to the sacrifice of Hercules, which 20 
even the bearers thereof thought fit not to bestow 
upon the sacrifice, because it was not convenient, but 
to be reserved for other charges. This money then, 
in regard of the sender, was appointed to Hercules' 
sacrifice ; but because of the bearers thereof, it was 25 
employed to the making of gallies. Now when 
Apollonius the son of Menestheus was sent into 
Egypt for the coronation of king Ptolemeus Philo- 
metor, Antiochus, understanding him not to be well 
103 



Ch. 4 ; Ver. 21-30. ^ Second Book 

Jason affected to his affairs, provided for his own safety : 
under- whereupon he came to Joppe, and from thence to 
mined by Jerusalem : where he was honourably received of 
Menelaus Jason, and of the city, and was brought in with torch 
5 light, and with great shoutings : and so afterward 
went with his host unto Phenice. Three years after- 
ward Jason sent Menelaus, the aforesaid Simon's 
brother, to bear the money unto the king, and to put 
him in mind of certain necessary matters. But he 
lo being brought to the presence of the king, when he 
had magnified him for the glorious appearance of his 
power, got the priesthood to himself, offering more 
than Jason by three hundred talents of silver. So he 
came with the king's mandate, bringing nothing 
15 worthy the high priesthood, but having the fury of 
a cruel tyrant, and the rage of a savage beast. Then 
Jason, who had undermined his own brother, being 
undermined by another, was compelled to flee Into 
the country of the Ammonites. 
20 So Menelaus got the principality : but as for the 
money that he had promised unto the king, he took 
no good order for it, albeit Sostratus the ruler of the 
castle required it : for unto him appertained the gather- 
ing of the customs. Wherefore they were both called 
85 before the king. Now Menelaus left his brother 
Lysimachus in his stead in the priesthood ; and 
Sostratus left Crates, who was governor of the 
Cyprians. 

While those things were in doing, they of Tarsus 

io6 



of Maccabees 5«» Ch. 4 ; Ver. 30-38. 

and Mallos made insurrection, because they were Murder of 

given to the king's concubine, called Antiochis. On'tas 

Then came the king in all haste to appease matters, 

leaving Andronicus, a man in authority, for his deputy. 

Now Menelaus, supposing that he had gotten a con- 5 

venient time, stole certain vessels of gold out of the 

temple, and gave some of them to Andronicus, and 

some he sold into Tyrus and the cities round about. 

Which when Onias knew of a surety, he reproved 

him, and withdrew himself into a sanctuary at Daphne, i© 

that lieth by Antiochia. Wherefore Menelaus, 

taking Andronicus apart, prayed him to get Onias 

into his hands ; who being persuaded thereunto, and 

coming to Onias in deceit, gave him his right hand 

with oaths ; and though he were suspected by him^ 15 

yet persuaded he him to come forth of the sanctuary : 

whom forthwith he shut up without regard of justice. 

For the which cause not only the Jews, but many 

also of other nations, took great indignation, and 

were much grieved for the unjust murder of the man. ao 

And when the king was come again from the 
places about Cilicia, the Jews that were in the city, 
and certain of the Greeks that abhorred the fact also, 
complained because Onias was slain without cause. 
Therefore Antiochus was heartily sorry, and moved 25 
to pity, and wept, because of the sober and modest 
behaviour of him that was dead. And being kindled 
with anger, forthwith he took away Andronicus his 
purple, and rent off his clothes, and leading him 



Ch. 4 ; Ver. 38-46. ^ Second Book 

If'^rongs through the whole city unto that very place, where 
done by he had committed impiety against Onias, there slew 
Lysi- he the cursed murderer. Thus the Lord rewarded 
machus him his punishment, as he had deserved. Now 
5 when many sacrileges had been committed in the 
city by Lysimachus with the consent of Menelaus, 
and the bruit thereof was spread abroad, the multi- 
tude gathered themselves together against Lysimachus, 
many vessels of gold being already carried away. 
10 Whereupon the common people rising, and being 
filled with rage, Lysimachus armed about three 
thousand men, and began first to offer violence ; one 
Auranus being the leader, a man far gone in years, 
and no less in folly. They then seeing the attempt 
15 of Lysimachus, some of them caught stones, some 
clubs, others taking handfuls of dust, that was next 
at hand, cast them all together upon Lysimachus, and 
those that set upon them. Thus many of them they 
wounded, and some they struck to the ground, and 
20 all of tkem they forced to flee : but as for the church- 
robber himself, him they killed beside the treasury. 

Of these matters therefore there was an accusation 
laid against Menelaus. Now when the king came to 
Tyrus, three men that were sent from the senate 
25 pleaded the cause before him : but Menelaus, being 
now convicted, promised Ptolemee the son of Dory- 
menes to give him much money, if he would pacify 
the king toward him. Whereupon Ptolemee taking 
the king aside into a certain gallery, as it were to 

icS 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. s ; Ver. 1.5. 

take the air, brought him to be of another mind : in- Menelaus 
somuch that he discharged Menelaus from the ac- strength- 
cusations, who notwithstanding was cause of all the ened in 
mischief : and those poor men, who, if they had told Power 
their cause, yea, before the Scythians, should have 5 
been judged innocent, them he condemned to death. 
Thus they that followed the matter for the city, and 
for the people, and for the holy vessels, did soon 
suffer unjust punishment. 

Wherefore even they of Tyrus, moved with ro 
hatred of that wicked deed, caused them to be 
honourably buried. And so through the covetous- 
ness of them that were of power Menelaus remained 
still in authority, increasing in malice, and being a 
great traitor to the citizens. ij 

* About the same time Antiochus prepared his 
second voyage into Egypt : and then it happened, 
that through all the city, for the space almost of 
forty days, there were seen horsemen running in the 
air, in cloth of gold, and armed with lances, like a so 
band of soldiers, and troops of horsemen in array, 
encountering and running one against another, with 
shaking of shields, and multitude of pikes, and 
drawing of swords, and casting of darts, and 
glittering of golden ornaments, and harness of all 25 
sorts. Wherefore every man prayed that that ap- 
parition might turn to good. 

Now when there was gone forth a false rumour, 
as though Antiochus had been dead, Jason took at 
109 



Ch. 5 ; Ver. 5-13- ^ Second Book 

Fate of the least a thousand men, and suddenly made an 
Jason assault upon the city ; and they that were upon the 
walls being put back, and the city at length taken, 
Menelaus fled into the castle : but Jason slew his 
5 own citizens without mercy, not considering that to 
get the day of them of his own nation would be a 
most unhappy day for him ; but thinking they had 
been his enemies, and not his countrymen, whom he 
conquered. Howbeit for all this he obtained not 

10 the principality, but at the last received shame for 
the reward of his treason, and fled again into the 
country of the Ammonites. In the end therefore he 
had an unhappy return, being accused before Aretas 
the king of the Arabians, fleeing from city to city, 

15 pursued of all men, hated as a forsaker of the laws, 
and being had in abomination as an open enemy of 
his country and countrymen, he was cast out into 
Egypt. Thus he that had driven many out of their 
country perished in a strange land, retiring to the 

20 Lacedemonians, and thinking there to find succour 

by reason of his kindred : and he that had cast out 

many unburied had none to mourn for him, nor any 

solemn funerals at all, nor sepulchre with his fathers. 

Now when this that was done came to the king's 

js ear, he thought that Judea had revolted : whereupon 
removing out of Egypt in a furious mind, he took 
the city by force of arms, and commanded his men 
of war not to spare such as they met, and to slay 
such as went up upon the houses. Thus there was 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 5; Ver. 13-20. 

killing of young and old, making away of men, Antiochus 
women, and children, slaying of virgins and infants, enters the 
And there were destroyed within the space of three Temple 
whole days fourscore thousand, whereof forty 
thousand were slain in the conflict ; and no fewer 5 
sold than slain. Yet was he not content with this, 
but presumed to go into the most holy temple of all 
the world ; Menelaus, that traitor to the laws, and 
to his own country, being his guide ; and taking the 
holy vessels with polluted hands, and with profane lo 
hands pulling down the things that were dedicated 
by other kings to the augmentation and glory and 
honour of the place, he gave them away. And so 
haughty was Antiochus in mind, that he considered 
not that the Lord was angry for a while for the sins 15 
of them that dwelt in the city, and therefore his eye 
was not upon the place. For had they not been 
formerly wrapped in many sins, this man, as soon as 
he had come, had forthwith been scourged, and put 
back from his presumption, as Heliodorus was, whom 20 
Seleucus the king sent to view the treasury. Never- 
theless God did not choose the people for the place's 
sake, but the place for the people's sake. And 
therefore the place itself, that was partaker with 
them of the adversity that happened to the nation, 25 
did afterward communicate in the benefits sent from 
the Lord: and as it was forsaken in the wrath of 
the Almighty, so again, the great Lord being recon- 
ciled, it was set up with all glory. 



Ch. 6;Ver. I. ^ Second Book 

Judas So when Antiochus had carried out of the temple 
Maccabeus a thousand and eight hundred talents, he departed in 
•withdraws all haste unto Antiochia, weening in his pride to 
from make the land navigable, and the sea passable by 
Jerusalem foot : such was the haughtiness of his mind. And 
he left governors to vex the nation : at Jerusalem, 
Philip, for his country a Phrygian, and for manners 
more barbarous than he that set him there ; and at 
Garizim, Andronicus ; and besides, Menelaus, who 
lo worse than all the rest bare an heavy hand over the 
citizens, having a malicious mind against his country- 
men the Jews. He sent also that detestable ring- 
leader Apollonius with an army of two and twenty 
thousand, commanding him to slay all those that 
15 were in their best age, and to sell the women and 
the younger sort : who coming to Jerusalem, and 
pretending peace, did forbear till the holy day of the 
sabbath, when taking the Jews keeping holy day, he 
commanded his men to arm themselves. And so he 
20 slew all them that were gone to the celebrating of 
the sabbath, and running through the city with 
weapons slew great multitudes. But Judas Macca- 
beus with nine others, or thereabout, withdrew him- 
self into the wilderness, and lived in the mountains 
25 after the manner of beasts, with his company, who 
fed on herbs continually, lest they should be par- 
takers of the pollution. 

* Not long after this the king sent an old man of 
Athens to compel the Jews to depart from the laws 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 6; Ver. i-io. 

of their fathers, and not to live after the laws of T/je Dese- 
God : and to pollute also the temple in Jerusalem, cration of 
and to call it the temple of Jupiter Olympius ; and the Temple 
that in Garizim, of Jupiter the Defender of strangers, 
as they did desire that dwelt in the place. The 5 
coming in of this mischief was sore and grievous to 
the people : for the temple was filled with riot and 
revelling by the Gentiles, who dallied with harlots, 
and had to do with women within the circuit of the 
holy places, and besides that brought in things that 10 
were not lawful. The altar also was filled with ^ 
profane things, which the law forbiddeth. Neither 
was it lawful for a man to keep sabbath days or 
ancient feasts, or to profess himself at all to be a 
Jew. And in the day of the king's birth every 15 
month they were brought by bitter constraint to eat 
of the sacrifices ; and when the feast of Bacchus was 
kept, the Jews were compelled to go in procession to 
Bacchus, carrying ivy. Moreover there went out a 
decree to the neighbour cities of the heathen, by -the 20 
suggestion of Ptolemee, against the Jews, that they 
should observe the same fashions, and be partakers of 
their sacrifices : and whoso would not conform them- 
selves to the manners of the Gentiles should be put 
to death. Then might a man have seen the present =5 
misery. For there were two women brought, who 
had circumcised their children ; whom when they 
had openly led round about the city, the babes 
hanging at their breasts, they cast them down head- 



Ch. 6 ; Ver. 10-21. ^ Second Book 

Cruelties long from the wall. And others, that had run to- 
infiicted on gether into caves near by, to keep the sabbath day 
the Jeivs secretly, being discovered to Philip, were all burned 
together, because they made a conscience to help 
5 themselves for the honour of the most sacred day. 
Now I beseech those that read this book, that they 
be not discouraged for these calamities, but that 
they judge those punishments not to be for destruction, 
but for a chastening of our nation. For it is a token 
lo of his great goodness, when wicked doers are not 
suffered any long time, but forthwith punished. For 
not as with other nations, whom the Lord patiently 
forbeareth to punish, till they be come to the fulness 
of their sins, so dealeth he with us, lest that, being 
15 come to the height of sin, afterwards he should take 
vengeance of us. And therefore he never with- 
draweth his mercy from us : and though he punish 
with adversity, yet doth he never forsake his people. 
But let this that we have spoken be for a warning 
20 unto us. And now will we come to the declaring of 
the matter in few words. Eleazar, one of the 
principal scribes, an aged man, and of a well favoured 
countenance, was constrained to open his mouth, and 
to eat swine's flesh. But he, choosing rather to die 
25 gloriously, than to live stained with such an abomina- 
tion, spit it forth, and came of his own accord to the 
torment, as it behoved them to come, that are resolute 
to stand out against such things, as are not lawful for 
love of life to be tasted. But they that had the 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 6 ; Ver. 21-28. 

charge of that wicked feast, for the old acquaintance Heroism of 

they had with the man, taking him aside, besought Eleazar 

him to bring flesh of his own provision, such as was 

lawful for him to use, and make as if he did eat of 

the flesh taken from the sacrifice commanded by the s 

king ; that in so doing he might be delivered from 

death, and for the old friendship with them find 

favour. 

But he began to consider discreetly, and as became 
his age, and the excellency of his ancient years, and lo 
the honour of his gray head, whereunto he was come, 
and his most honest education from a child, or rather 
the holy law made and given by God : therefore he 
answered accordingly, and willed them straightways 
to send him to the grave. For it becometh not our 15 
age, said he, in any wise to dissemble, whereby many 
young persons might think that Eleazar, being four- 
score years old and ten, were now gone to a strange 
religion ; and so they through mine hypocrisy, and 
desire to live a little time and a moment longer, should 20 
be deceived by me, and I get a stain to mine old age, 
and make it abominable. For though for the present 
time I should be delivered from the punishment of men ; 
yet should I not escape the hand of the Almighty, 
neither alive, nor dead. Wherefore now, manfully 25 
changing this life, I will shew myself such an one as 
mine age requireth, and leave a notable example to 
such as be young to die willingly and courageously 
for the honourable and holy laws. And when he 



Ch. 7 ; Ver. 1-5. ^ Second Book 

Heroism had said these words, immediately he went to the 

y Death torment : they that led him changing the good will 

of Eleaxar they bare him a little before into hatred, because the 

foresaid speeches proceeded, as they thought, from a 

5 desperate mind. But when he was ready to die with 
stripes, he groaned, and said. It is manifest unto the 
Lord, that hath the holy knowledge, that whereas I 
might have been delivered from death, I now endure 
sore pains in body by being beaten : but in soul am 

10 well content to suffer these things, because I fear 
him. And thus this man died, leaving his death for 
an example of a noble courage, and a memorial of 
•virtue, not only unto young men, but unto all his 
nation. 

15 * It came to pass also, that seven brethren with their 
mother were taken, and compelled by the king against 
the law to taste swine's flesh, and were tormented 
with scourges and whips. But one of them that spake 
first said thus. What wouldest thou ask or learn of 

20 us ? we are ready to die, rather than to transgress the 
laws of our fathers. Then the king, being in a rage, 
commanded pans and caldrons to be made hot : 
which forthwith being heated, he commanded to cut 
out the tongue of him that spake first, and to cut off 

25 the utmost parts of his body, the rest of his brethren 
and his mother looking on. Now when he was thus 
maimed in all his members, he commanded him 
being yet alive to be brought to the fire, and to be 
fried in the pan : and as the vapour of the pan was 
116 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 7 ; Ver. 5-14. 

for a good space dispersed, they exhorted one another Torments 
with the mother to die manfully, saying thus, The inflicted on 
Lord God looketh upon us, and in truth hath com- Jews 
fort in us, as Moses in his song, which witnessed to 
their faces, declared, saying. And he shall be com- 5 
forted in his servants. 

So when the first was dead after this manner, they 
brought the second to make him a mocking stock : 
and when they had pulled off the skin of his head 
with the hair, they asked him. Wilt thou eat, before lo 
thou be punished throughout every member of thy 
body ? But he answered in his own language, and 
said. No. Wherefore he also received the next 
torment in order as the former did. And when he 
was at the last gasp, he said, Thou like a fury takest is 
us out of this present life, but the King of the world 
shall raise us up, who have died for his laws, unto 
everlasting life. 

After him was the third made a mocking stock : 
and when he was required, he put out his tongue, and 2° 
that right soon, holding forth his hands manfully, and 
said courageously, These I had from heaven ; and 
for his laws I despise them ; and from him I hope 
to receive them again. Insomuch that the king, and 
they that were with him, marvelled at the young 25 
man's courage, for that he nothing regarded the pains. 

Now when this man was dead also, they tormented 
and mangled the fourth in like manner. So when he 
was ready to die he said thus. It is good, being put 

K 117 



Ch. 7 ; Ver. 14-23. -^ Second Book 

A Mother to death by men, to look for hope from God to be 
(5* her raised up again by him : as for thee, thou shalt have 
Seven Sons no resurrection to life. 

tortured Afterward they brought the fifth also, and 
5 mangled him. Then looked he unto the king, and 
said, Thou hast power over men, thou art corruptible, 
thou doest what thou wilt ; yet think not that our 
nation is forsaken of God ; but abide a while, and 
behold his great power, how he will torment thee 
lo and thy seed. 

After him also they brought the sixth, who being 
ready to die said. Be not deceived without cause : 
for we suffer these things for ourselves, having sinned 
against our God : therefore marvellous things are 
15 done unto us. But think not thou, that takest in hand 
to strive against God, that thou shalt escape un- 
punished. 

But the mother was marvellous above all, and 
worthy of honourable memory : for when she saw 
20 her seven sons slain within the space of one day, she 
bare it with a good courage, because of the hope that 
she had in the Lord. Yea, she exhorted every one 
of them in her own language, filled with courageous 
spirits ; and stirring up her womanish thoughts with 
25 a manly stomach, she said unto them, I cannot tell 
how ye came into my womb ; for I neither gave you 
breath nor life, neither was it I that formed the 
members of every one of you ; but doubtless the 
Creator of the world, who formed the generation of 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 7 ; Ver. 23-29. 

man, and found out the beginning of all things, will ^ Mother 
also of his own mercy give you breath and life again, ^ her 
as ye now regard not your own selves for his laws' sake. Seven Sons 

Now Antiochus, thinking himself despised, and tortured 
suspecting it to be a reproachful speech, whilst the 5 
youngest was yet alive, did not only exhort him by 
words, but also assured him with oaths, that he 
would make him both a rich and a happy man, if he 
would turn from the laws of his fathers ; and that 
also he would take him for his friend, and trust him 10 
with affairs. But when the young man would in no 
case hearken unto him, the king called his mother, 
and exhorted her that she would counsel the young 
man to save his life. And when he had exhorted 
her with many words, she promised him that she 15 
would counsel her son. 

But she bowing herself toward him, laughing the 
cruel tyrant to scorn, spake in her country language 
on this manner ; O my son, have pity upon me 
that bare thee nine months in my womb, and gave 20 
thee suck three years, and nourished thee, and 
brought thee up unto this age, and endured the 
troubles of education. I beseech thee, my son, look 
upon the heaven and the earth, and all that is therein, 
and consider that God made them of things that were 25 
not ; and so was mankind made likewise. Fear not 
this tormentor, but, being worthy of thy brethren, 
take thy death, that I may receive thee again in 
mercy with thy brethren. 



Ch. 7 ; Ver. 30-40. ^ Second Book 

^ Mother Whiles she was yet speaking these words, the 
iff her young man said, Whom wait ye for ? I will not 
Seven Sons obey the king's commandment : but I will obey the 
tortured commandment of the law that was given unto our 
s fathers by Moses. And thou, that hast been the 
author of all mischief against the Hebrews, shalt not 
escape the hands of God. For we suffer because of 
our sins. And though the living Lord be angry 
with us a little while for our chastening and correction, 
10 yet shall he be at one again with his servants. But 
thou, O godless man, and of all other most wicked, 
be not lifted up without a cause, nor puffed up with 
uncertain hopes, lifting up thy hand against the ser- 
vants of God : for thou hast not yet escaped the 
15 judgment of Almighty God, who seeth all things. 
For our brethren, who now have suffered a short 
pain, are dead under God's covenant of everlasting 
life : but thou, through the judgment of God, shalt 
receive just punishment for thy pride. But I, as my 
20 brethren, offer up my body and life for the laws of 
our fathers, beseeching God that he would speedily be 
merciful unto our nation ; and that thou by torments 
and plagues mayest confess, that he alone is God ; and 
that in me and my brethren the wrath of the Almighty, 
25 which is justly brought upon all our nation, may cease. 
Then the king, being in a rage, handled him worse 
than all the rest, and took it grievously that he was 
mocked. So this man died undefiled, and put his 
whole trust in the Lord. 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 8- Ver. i-8. 

Last of all after the sons the mother died. Revolt 

Let this be enough now to have spoken concerning against 
the idolatrous feasts, and the extreme tortures. Antiochus 

* Then Judas Maccabeus, and they that were with by Judas 
him, went privily into the towns, and called their Maccabeus 
kinsfolks together, and took unto them all such as 
continued in the Jews' religion, and assembled about 
six thousand men. And they called upon the Lord, 
that he would look upon the people that was trodden 
down of all ; and also pity the temple profaned of lo 
ungodly men ; and that he would have compassion 
upon the city, sore defaced, and ready to be made 
even with the ground ; and hear the blood that cried 
unto him, and remember the wicked slaughter of 
harmless infants, and the blasphemies committed is 
against his name ; and that he would shew his hatred 
against the wicked. Now when Maccabeus had his 
company about him, he could not be withstood by 
the heathen : for the wrath of the Lord was turned 
into mercy. Therefore he came at unawares, and 20 
burnt up towns and cities, and got into his hands the 
most commodious places, and overcame and put to 
flight no small number of his enemies. But specially 
took he advantage of the night for such privy attempts, 
insomuch that the bruit of his manliness was spread 25 
every where. 

So when Philip saw that this man increased by 
little and little, and that things prospered with him 
still more and more, he wrote unto Ptolemeus, the 



Ch. 8 ; Ver. 8-16. ^ Second Book 

Nicanor governor of Celosyria and Phenice, to yield more aid 
sent to the king's affairs. Then forthwith choosing Ni- 
against canor the son of Patroclus, one of his special friends, 
'yudas he sent him with no fewer than twenty thousand of 
s all nations under him, to root out the whole genera- 
tion of the Jews ; and with him he joined also 
Gorgias a captain, who in matters of war had great 
experience. So Nicanor undertook to make so much 
money of the captive Jews, as should defray the 
10 tribute of two thousand talents, which the king was 
to pay to the Romans. Wherefore immediately he 
sent to the cities upon the sea coast, proclaiming a 
sale of the captive Jews, and promising that they 
should have fourscore and ten bodies for one talent, 
IS not expecting the vengeance that was to follow upon 
him from the Almighty God. 

Now when word was brought unto Judas of Ni- 
canor's coming, and he had imparted unto those that 
were with him that the army was at hand, they 
2o that were fearful, and distrusted the justice of God, 
fled, and conveyed themselves away. Others sold 
all that they had left, and withal besought the Lord 
to deliver them, being sold by the wicked Nicanor 
before they met together : and if not for their own 
25 sakes, yet for the covenants he had made with their 
fathers, and for his holy and glorious name's sake, by 
which they were called. So Maccabeus called his 
men together unto the number of six thousand, and 
exhorted them not to be stricken with terror of the 



of Maccabees 5o» Ch. 8 ; Ver. 16-23. 

enemy, nor to fear the great multitude of the heathen, Judas 
who came wrongfully against them ; but to fight encourages 
manfully, and to set before their eyes the injury that his Men 
they had unjustly done to the holy place, and the 
cruel handling of the city, whereof they made a 5 
mockery, and also the taking away of the government 
of their forefathers : for they, said he, trust in their 
weapons and boldness ; but our coniidence is in the 
Almighty God, who at a beck can cast down both 
them that come against us, and also all the world. 10 
Moreover he recounted unto them what helps their 
forefathers had found, and how they were delivered, 
when under Sennacherib an hundred fourscore and 
five thousand perished. And he told them of the 
battle that they had in Babylon witii the Galatians, is 
how they came but eight thousand in all to the busi- 
ness, with four thousand Macedonians, and that the 
Macedonians being perplexed, the eight thousand de- 
stroyed an hundred and twenty thousand because of 
the help that they had from heaven, and so received 20 
a great booty= 

Thus when he had made them bold with these 
words, and ready to die for the laws and the 
country, he divided his army into four parts ; and 
joined with himself his own brethren, leaders of each 23 
band, to ivii, Simon, and Joseph, and Jonathan, 
giving each one fifteen hundred men. Also he ap- 
pointed Eleazar to read the holy book : and when he 
had given them this watchword, The help of God ; 



Ch. 8 ; Ver. 23-31- ^ Second Book 

Victory ©/"himself leading the first band, he joined battle with 
Judas Nicanor. And by the help of the Almighty they 
slew above nine thousand of their enemies, and 
wounded and maimed the most part of Nicanor' s 
5 host, and so put all to flight ; and took their money 
that came to buy them, and pursued them far : but 
lacking time they returned : for it was the day 
before the sabbath, and therefore they would no 
lofiger pursue them. 

ic So when they had gathered their armour together, 
and spoiled their enemies, they occupied themselves 
about the sabbath, yielding exceeding praise and 
thanks to the Lord, who had preserved them unto 
that day, which was the beginning of mercy dis- 

15 tilling upon them. And after the sabbath, when 
they had given part of the spoils to the maimed, and 
the widows, and orphans, the residue they divided 
among themselves and their servants. When this 
was done, and they had made a common supplication, 

2o they besought the merciful Lord to be reconciled 
with his servants for ever. Moreover of those that 
were with Timotheus and Bacchides, who fought 
against them, they slew above twenty thousand, and 
very easily got high and strong holds, and divided 

25 among themselves many spoils more, and made the 
maimed, orphans, widows, yea, and the aged also, 
equal in spoils with themselves. And when they 
had gathered their armour together, they laid them 
up all carefully in convenient places, and the remnant 

:24 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 9 ; Ver. 1-3. 

of the spoils they brought to Jerusalem. They slew Antiochus 
also Philarches, that wicked person, who was with suffers 
Timotheus, and had annoyed the Jews many ways. Defeat in 
Furthermore at such time as they kept the feast for Persia 
the victory in their country they burnt Callisthenes, 5 
that had set fire upon the holy gates, who had fled 
into a little house ; and so he received a reward 
meet for his wickedness. 

As for that most ungracious Nicanor, who had 
brought a thousand merchants to buy the Jews, he 10 
was through the help of the Lord brought down by 
them, of whom he made least account ; and putting 
off his glorious apparel, and discharging his company, 
he came like a fugitive servant through the midland 
unto Antioch, having very great dishonour, for that 15 
his host was destroyed. Thus he, that took upon 
him to make good to the Romans their tribute by 
means of the captives in Jerusalem, told abroad, that 
the Jews had God to fight for them, and therefore 
they could not be hurt, because they followed the 20 
laws that he gave them. 

* About that time came Antiochus with dishonour 
out of the country of Persia. For he had entered 
the city called Persepolis, and went about to rob the 
temple, and to hold the city ; whereupon the multi- 25 
tude running to defend themselves with their weapons 
put them to flight ; and so it happened, that 
Antiochus being put to flight of the inhabitants re- 
turned with shame. Now when he came to Ecba- 



Ch. 9 ; Ver. 3-8. ^ Second Book 

Antiockus tane, news was brought him what had happened unto 
smitten Nicanor and Timotheus. Then swelling with anger, 
With he thought to avenge upon the Jews the disgrace 
Disease done unto him by those that made him flee. There- 
5 fore commanded he his chariotman to drive without 
ceasing, and to dispatch the journey, the judgment 
of God now following him. For he had spoken 
proudly in this sort. That he would come to Jeru- 
salem, and make it a common burying-place of the 
lo Jews. 

But the Lord Almighty, the God of Israel, smote 
him with an incurable and invisible plague : for as 
soon as he had spoken these words, a pain of the 
bowels that was remediless came upon him, and 
IS sore torments of the inner parts ; and that most 
justly : for he had tormented other men's bowels 
with many and strange torments. Howbeit he 
nothing at all ceased from his bragging, but still was 
filled with pride, breathing out fire in his rage against 
20 the Jews, and commanding to haste the journey : but 
it came to pass that he fell down from his chariot, 
carried violently ; so that having a sore fall, all the 
members of his body were much pained. And thus 
he that a little afore thought he might command 
25 the waves of the sea, (so proud was he beyond the 
condition of man) and weigh the high mountains in 
a balance, was now cast on the ground, and carried 
in an horselitter, shewing forth unto all the manifest 
power of God. 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 9 ; Ver. 9-17. 

So that the worms rose up out of the body of this Repentance 
wicked man, and whiles he lived in sorrow and pain, of Anti- 
his flesh fell awav, and the filthiness of his smell was ochus 
noisome to all his army. And the man, that thought 
a little afore he could reach to the stars of heaven, 5 
no man could endure to carry for his intolerable 
stink. Here therefore, being plagued, he began to 
leave off his great pride, and to come to the know- 
ledge of himself by the scourge of God, his pain 
increasing every moment. And when he himself 10 
could not abide his own smell, he said these words. 
It is meet to be subject unto God, and that a man 
that is mortal should not proudly think of himself, as 
if he were God. This wicked person vowed also 
unto the Lord, who now no more would have mercy 15 
upon him, saying thus. That the holy city (to the 
which he was going in haste, to lay it even with the 
ground, and to make it a common buryingplace,) he 
would set at liberty : 

And as touching the Jews, whom he had judged 20 
not worthy so much as to be buried, but to be cast 
out with their children to be devoured of the fowls 
and wild beasts, he would make them all equals to 
the citizens of Athens : and the holy temple, which 
before he had spoiled, he would garnish with goodly 23 
gifts, and restore all the holy vessels with many more, 
and out of his own revenue defray the charges be- 
longing to the sacrifices : yea, and that also he 
would become a Jew himself, and go through all the 



I 



Ch. 9 ; Ver. 17-25. ^ Second Book 

u4titiochus world that was inhabited, and declare the power of 

'writes to God. But for all this his pains would not cease : 

the Jeivs for the just judgment of God was come upon 

him : therefore despairing of his health, he wrote 

s unto the Jews the letter underwritten, containing the 

form of a supplication, after this manner : 

Antiochus, king and governor, to the good Jews 
his citizens wisheth much joy, health, and prosperity: 
If ye and your children fare well, and your affairs be 
lo to your contentment, I give very great thanks to 
God, having my hope in heaven. As for me, I was 
weak, or else I would have remembered kindly your 
honour and good will. Returning out of Persia, and 
being taken with a grievous disease, I thought it 
IS necessary to care for the common safety of all : not 
distrusting mine health, but having great hope to 
escape this sickness. But considering that even my 
father, at what time he led an army into the high 
countries, appointed a successor, to the end that, if 
20 any thing fell out contrary to expectation, or if any 
tidings were brought that were grievous, they of the 
land, knowing to whom the state was left, might not 
be troubled : 

Again, considering how that the princes that are 
25 borderers and neighbours unto my kingdom wait for 
opportunities, and expect what shall be the event, I 
have appointed my son Antiochus king, whom I 
often committed and commended unto many of you, 
when I went up into the high provinces ; to whom I 



of Maccabees 5©» Ch. lo; Ver. 1-5. 

have written as followeth : therefore I pray and Judas 

request you to remember the benefits that I )\aMe purlfes the 

done unto you generally, and in special, and that Temple 

every man will be still faithful to me and my son. 

For I am persuaded that he understanding my mind 5 

will favourably and graciously yield to your desires. 

Thus the murderer and blasphemer having suffered 

most grievously, as he entreated other men, so died 

he a miserable death in a strange country in the 

mountains. And Philip, that was brought up with 10 

him, carried away his body, who also fearing the son 

of Antiochus went into Egypt to Ptolemeus Philo- 

metor. 

* Now Maccabeus and his company, the Lord 

guiding them, recovered the temple and the city : 15 

but the altars which the heathen had built in the open 

street, and also the chapels, they pulled down. And 

having cleansed the temple they made another altar, 

and striking stones they took fire out of them, and 

offered a sacrifice after two years, and set forth 20 

incense, and lights, and shewbread. When that was 

done, they fell flat down, and besought the Lord that 

they might come no more into such troubles ; but if 

they sinned any more against him, that he himself 

would chasten them with mercy, and that they might 25 

not be delivered unto the blasphemous and barbarous 

nations. Now upon the same day that the strangers 

profaned the temple, on the very same day it was 

cleansed again, even the five and twentieth day of the 



Ch. 10 ; Ver. 5-14. ^ Second Book 

The In- same month, which is Casleu. And they kept eight 

justice qfda.ys with gladness, as in the feast of the tabernacles, 

j4ntiochus remembering that not long afore they had held the 

Eupator feast of the tabernacles, when as they wandered in 

5 the mountains and dens like beasts. Therefore they 

bare branches, and fair boughs, and palms also, and 

sangs psalms unto him that had given them good 

success in cleansing his place. They ordained also 

by a common statute and decree. That every year 

10 those days should be kept of the whole nation of the 

Jews. And this was the end of Antiochus called 

Epiphanes. 

Now will we declare the acts of Antiochus 

Eupator, who was the son of this wicked man, 

15 gathering briefly the calamities of the wars. So 

when he was come to the crown, he set one Lysias 

over the affairs of his realm, and appointed him chief 

governor of Celosyria and Phenice. For Ptolemeus, 

that was called Macron, choosing rather to do justice 

£o unto the Jews for the wrong that had been done unto 

them, endeavoured to continue peace with them. 

Whereupon being accused of the iing's friends before 

Eupator, and called traitor at every word, because he 

had left Cyprus, that Philometor had committed unto 

25 him, and departed to Antiochus Epiphanes, and 

seeing that he was in no honourable place, he was so 

discouraged, that he poisoned himself and died. 

But when Gorgias was governor of the holds, he 
hired soldiers, and nourished war continually with the 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. lo ; Ver. 14.23. 

Jews : and therewithal the Idumeans, having gotten The Covet- 
into their hands the most commodious holds, kept ousness of 
the Jews occupied, and receiving those that were Simoti 
banished from Jerusalem, they went about to nourish 
war. Then they that were with Maccabeus made 5 
supplication, and besought God that he would be 
their helper ; and so they ran with violence upon the 
strong holds of the Idumeans, and assaulting them 
strongly, they won the holds, and kept off all that 
fought upon the wall, and slew all that fell into their 10 
hands, and killed no fewer than twenty thousand. 
And because certain, who were no less than nine 
thousand, were fled together into two very strong 
castles, having all manner of things convenient to 
sustain the siege, Maccabeus left Simon and Joseph, k; 
and Zaccheus also, and them that were with him, 
who were enough to besiege them, and departed him- 
self unto those places which more needed his help. 

Now they that were with Simon, being led with 
covetousness, were persuaded for money through 20 
certain of those that were in the castle, and took 
seventy thousand drachms, and let some of them 
escape. But when it was told Maccabeus what was 
done, he called the governors of the people together, 
and accused those men, that they had sold their 25 
brethren for money, and set their enemies free to 
fight against them. So he slew those that were 
found traitors, and immediately took the two castles. 
And having good success with his weapons in all 



Ch. 10 ; Ver. 23-31. -^ Second Book 

Jvdas things he took, in hand, he slew in the two holds 

defeats more than twenty thousand. 

Timoiheus Now Timotheus, whom the Jews had overcome 

before, when he had gathered a great multitude of 

5 foreign forces, and horses out of Asia not a few, 

came as though he would take Jewry by force of 

arms. But when he drew near, they that were with 

Maccabeus turned themselves to pray unto God, and 

sprinkled earth upon their heads, and girded their 

10 loins with sackcloth, and fell down at the foot of the 
altar, and besought him to be merciful to them, and 
to be an enemy to their enemies, and an adversary to 
their adversaries, as the law declareth. So after the 
prayer they took their weapons, and went on further 

15 from the city : and when they drew near to their 
enemies, they kept by themselves. 

Now the sun being newly risen, they joined both 
together ; the one part having together with their 
virtue their refuge also unto the Lord for a pledge of 

20 their success and victory : the other side making 
their rage leader of their battle. But when the battle 
waxed strong, there appeared unto the enemies from 
heaven five comely men upon horses, with bridles of 
gold, and two of them led the Jews, and took 

2s Maccabeus betwixt them, and covered him on every 
side with their weapons, and kept him safe, but shot 
arrows and lightnings against the enemies : so that 
being confounded with blindness, and full of trouble, 
they were killed. And there were slain of footmen 
132 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. ii ; Ver. 1-3. 

twenty thousand and five hundred, and six hundred Death of 
horsemen. Timotheus 

As for Timotheus himself, he fled into a very- 
strong hold, called Gazara, where Chereas was 
governor. But they that were with Maccabeus laid 5 
siege against the fortress courageously four days. 
And they that were within, trusting to the strength 
of the place, blasphemed exceedingly, and uttered 
wicked words. Nevertheless upon the fifth day 
early twenty young men of Maccabeus' company, 10 
inflamed with anger because of the blasphemies, 
assaulted the wall manly, and with a fierce courage 
killed all that they met withal. Others likewise 
ascending after them, whiles they were busied with 
them that were within, burnt the towers, and kindling is 
fires burnt the blasphemers alive ; and others broke 
open the gates, and, having received in the rest ot 
the army, took the city, and killed Timotheus, that 
was hid in a certain pit, and Chereas his brother, 
with Apollophanes. When this was done, they 20 
praised the Lord with psalms and thanksgiving, who 
had done so great things for Israel, and given them 
the victory. 

* Not long after this, Lysias the king's protector 
and cousin, who also managed the affairs, took sore 25 
displeasure for the things that were done. And 
when he had gathered about fourscore thousand with 
all the horsemen, he came against the Jews, thinking 
to make the city an habitation of the Gentiles, and 
L 133 



Ch. II ; Ver. 3-12. ^ Second Book 

Judas to make a gain of the temple, as of the other chapels 

defeats of the heathen, and to set the high priesthood to sale 

Lysias every year : not at all considering the power of God, 

but puffed up with his ten thousands of footmen, and 

s his thousands of horsemen, and his fourscore elephants. 

So he came to Judea, and drew near to Bethsura, 

which was a strong town, but distant from Jerusalem 

about five furlongs, and he laid sore siege unto it. 

Now when they that were with Maccabeus heard 

lo that he besieged the holds, they and all the people 
with lamentation and tears besought the Lord that 
he would send a good angel to deliver Israel. 

Then Maccabeus himself first of all took weapons, 
exhorting the other that they would jeopard them- 

15 selves together with him to help their brethren : so 
they went forth together with a willing mind. And 
as they were at Jerusalem, there appeared before 
them on horseback one in white clothing, shaking his 
armour of gold. Then they praised the merciful 

20 God all together, and took heart, insomuch that they 
were ready not only to fight with men, but with most 
cruel beasts, and to pierce through walls of iron. 
Thus they marched forward in their armour, having 
an helper from heaven : for the Lord was merciful 

25 unto them. And giving a charge upon their enemies 
like lions, they slew eleven thousand ybo/mfn, and six- 
teen hundred horsemen, and put all the other to flight. 
Many of them also being wounded escaped naked ; 
and Lysias himself fled away shamefully, and so 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. n ; Ver. 12-23. 

escaped. Who, as he was a man of understanding, Judas 
casting with himself what loss he had had, and con- wakes 
sidering that the Hebrews could not be overcome, Peace 
because the Almighty God helped them, he sent luith 
unto them, and persuaded them to agree to all Lys'ias 
reasonable conditions, and promised that he would per- 
suade the king that he must needs be a friend unto 
them. 

Then Maccabeus consented to all that Lysias de- 
sired, being careful of the common good ; and what- 10 
soever Maccabeus wrote unto Lysias concerning the 
Jews, the king granted it. For there were letters 
written unto the Jews from Lysias to this effect : 
Lysias unto the people of the Jews sendeth greeting : 

John and Absalon, who were sent from you, de- 15 
livered me the petition subscribed, and made request 
for the performance of the contents thereof. There- 
fore what things soever were meet to be reported to 
the king, I have declared them, and he hath granted 
as much as might be. If then ye will keep your- 20 
selves loyal to the state, hereafter also will I endeavour 
to be a means of your good. But of the particulars 
I have given order both to these, and the other that 
came from me, to commune with you. Fare ye well. 
The hundred and eight and fortieth year, the four 25 
and twentieth day of the month Dioscorinthius. 

Now the king's letter contained these words : 
King Antiochus unto his brother Lysias sendeth greet- 
ing : Since our father is translated unto the gods, our 



Ch. II ; Ver. 23-33. ^ Second Book 

j^ntiochus will is, that they that are in our realm live quietly, 

confirms that every one may attend upon his own affairs. We 

the Treaty understand also that the Jews would not consent to 

of Lysias our father, for to be brought unto the custom of the 

5 Gentiles, but had rather keep their own manner of 

living : for the which cause they require of us, that 

we should suffer them to live after their own laws. 

Wherefore our mind is, that this nation shall be in 

rest, and we have determined to restore them their 

10 temple, that they may live according to the customs 
of their forefathers. Thou shalt do well therefore to 
send unto them, and grant them peace, that when they 
are certified of our mind, they may be of good com- 
fort, and ever go cheerfully about their own affairs. 

15 And the letter of the king unto the nation of the 
Jews was after this manner : King Antiochus sendeth 
greeting unto the council, and the rest of the Jews : 
If ye fare well, we have our desire ; we are also in 
good health. Menelaus declared unto us, that your 

20 desire was to return home, and to follow your own 
business : wherefore they that will depart shall have 
safe conduct till the thirtieth day of Xanthicus with 
security. And the Jews shall use their own kind of 
meats and laws, as before ; and none of them any 

B5 manner of ways shall be molested for things ignor- 

antly done. I have sent also Menelaus, that he may 

comfort you. Fare ye well. In the hundred forty 

and eighth year, and the litteenth day of the month 

Xanthicus. 

1^,6 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 12; Ver. 1-4. 

The Romans also sent unto them a letter contain- The 
ing these words : Quintus Memmius and Titus Man- Romans 
lius, ambassadors of the Romans, send greeting unto ratify the 
the people of the Jews. Whatsoever Lysias the Peace 
king's cousin hath granted, therewith we also are well 5 
pleased. But touching such things as he judged to 
be referred to the king, after ye have advised thereof, 
send one forthwith, that we may declare as it is con- 
venient for you : for we are now going to Antioch. 
Therefore send some with speed, that we may know 10 
what is your mind. Farewell. This hundred and 
eight and fortieth year, the fifteenth day of the month 
Xanthicus. 

* When these covenants were made, Lysias went 
unto the king, and the Jews were about their 15 
husbandry. 

But of the governors of several places, Timotheus, 
and Apollonius the son of Genneus, also Hieronymus, 
and Demophon, and beside them Nicanor the governor 
of Cyprus, would not suffer them to be quiet, and 20 
live in peace. The men of Joppe also did such an 
ungodly deed : they prayed the Jews that dwelt 
among them to go with their wives and children into 
the boats which they had prepared, as though they 
had meant them no hurt. Who accepted of it ac- 25 
cording to the common decree of the city, as being 
desirous to live in peace, and suspecting nothing : but 
when they were gone forth into the deep, they 
drowned no less than two hundred of them. 



Ch. 12: Ver. 5-13. ^ Second Book 

"Judas When Judas heard of this cruelty done unto his 
punishes countrymen, he commanded those that were with 
the Men him to make them ready. And calling upon God the 
of "Joppa righteous Judge, he came against those murderers 
ar^d ofoi his brethren, and burnt the haven by night, and 
Jamna set the boats on fire, and those that fled thither he 
slew. And when the town was shut up, he went 
backward, as if he would return to root out all them 
of the city of Joppe. But when he heard that the 
10 Jamnites were minded to do in like manner unto the 
Jews that dwelt among them, he came upon the 
Jamnites also by night, and set fire on the haven and 
the navy, so that the light of the fire was seen at 
Jerusalem two hundred and forty furlongs off. 
15 Now when they were gone from thence nine 
furlongs in their journey toward Timotheus, no 
fewer than five thousand men on foot and five hundred 
horsemen of the Arabians set upon him. Where- 
upon there was a very sore battle ; but Judas' side 
20 by the help of God got the victory ; so that the 
Nomades of Arabia, being overcome, besought 
Judas for peace, promising both to give him cattle, 
and to pleasure him otherwise. Then Judas, 
thinking indeed that they would be profitable in 
25 many things, granted them peace : whereupon they 
shook hands, and so they departed to their tents. 
He went also about to make a bridge to a certain 
strong city, which was fenced about with walls, and 
inhabited by people of divers countries ; and the 
133 



of Maccabees 5^ Ch. 12; Ver. 13-21. 

name of it was Caspis. But they that were within He also 
it put such trust in the strength of the walls and captures 
provision of victuals, that they behaved themselves Caspis 
rudely toward them that were with Judas, railing 
and blaspheming, and uttering such words as were s 
not to be spoken. Wherefore Judas with his 
company, calling upon the great Lord of the world, 
who without any rams or engines of war did cast 
down Jericho in the time of Joshua, gave a fierce 
assault against the walls, and took, the city by the 10 
will of God, and made unspeakable slaughters, inso- 
much that a lake two furlongs broad near adjoining 
thereunto, being filled full, was seen running with 
blood. Then departed they from thence seven 
hundred and fifty furlongs, and came to Characa 15 
unto the Jews that are called Tubieni. 

But as for Timotheus, they found him not in the 
places : for before he had dispatched any thing, he 
departed from thence, having left a very strong 
garrison in a certain hold. Howbeit Dositheus and 20 
Sosipater, who were of Maccabeus' captains, went 
forth, and slew those that Timotheus had left in the 
fortress, above ten thousand men. And Maccabeus 
ranged his army by bands, and set them over the 
bands, and went against Timotheus, who had about 25 
him an hundred and twenty thousand men of foot, 
and two thousand and five hundred horsemen. 

Now when Timotheus had knowledge of Judas' 
coming, he sent the women and children and the 

139 



Ch. 12 ; Ver. 21-27. '^ Second Book 

Judas other baggage unto a fortress called Carnion : for 

attacks the town was hard to besiege, and uneasy to come 

Carnion unto, by reason of the straightness of all the places. 

But when Judas his first band came in sight, the 

5 enemies, being smitten with fear and terror through 

the appearing of him that seeth all things, fled amain, 

one running this way, another that way, so as that 

they were often hurt of their own men, and 

wounded with the points of their own swords. 

10 Judas also was very earnest in pursuing them, 
killing those wicked wretches, of whom he slew 
about thirty thousand men. Moreover Timotheus 
himself fell into the hands of Dositheus and Sosi- 
pater, whom he besought with much craft to let him 

IS ?P with his life, because he had many of the Jews' 
parents, and the brethren of some of them, who, if 
they put him to death, should not be regarded. So 
when he had assured them with many words that he 
would restore them without hurt, according to the 

2o agreement, they let him go for the saving of their 
brethren. 

Then Maccabeus marched forth to Carnion, and 
to the temple of Atargatis, and there he slew five 
and twenty thousand persons. And after he had 

25 put to flight and destroyed them, Judas removed the 
host toward Ephron, a strong city, wherein Lysias 
abode, and a great multitude of divers nations, and 
the strong young men kept the walls, and defended 
them mightily : wherein also was great provision of 
140 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 12; Ver. 27-37, 

engines and darts. But when Judas and his company Gorgias of 
had called upon Almighty God, who with his power Idumea 
breaketh the strength of his enemies, they won the assailed 
city, and slew twenty and five thousand of them that 
were within. From thence they departed to 5 
Scythopolis, which lieth six hundred furlongs from 
Jerusalem. 

But when the Jews that dwelt there had testified 
that the Scythopolitans dealt lovingly with them, 
and entreated them kindly in the time of their ad- 10 
versity ; they gave them thanks, desiring them to be 
friendly still unto them : and so they came to 
Jerusalem, the feast of the weeks approaching. 
And after the feast, called Pentecost, they went 
forth against Gorgias the governor of Idumea, who 15 
came out with three thousand men of foot and four 
hundred horsemen. And it happened that in their 
fighting together a few of the Jews were slain. At 
which time Dositheus, one of Bacenor's company, 
who was on horseback, and a strong man, was still ao 
upon Gorgias, and taking hold of his coat drew him 
by force ; and when he would have taken that cursed 
man alive, a horseman of Thracia coming upon him 
smote off his shoulder, so that Gorgias fled unto 
Marisa. 25 

Now when they that were with Gorgias had 
fought long, and were weary, Judas called upon the 
Lord, that he would shew himself to be their 
helper and leader of the battle. And with that he 



Ch. 12; Ver. 37-44. ^ Second Book 

"Judas dis~ began in his own language, and sung psalms with a 

covers loud voice, and rushing unawares upon Gorgias' men. 

Idolatry he put them to flight. So Judas gathered his host, 

among some and came into the city of Odollam. And when the 

of his Men seventh day came, they purified themselves, as the 

custom was, and kept the sabbath in the same place. 

And upon the day following, as the use had been, 

Judas and his company came to take up the bodies 

of them that were slain, and to bury them with their 

10 kinsmen in their fathers' graves. Now under the 
coats of every one that was slain they found things 
consecrated to the idols of the Jamnites, which is 
forbidden the Jews by the law. Then every man 
saw that this was the cause wherefore they were 

15 slain. All men therefore praising the Lord, the 
righteous Judge, who had opened the things that 
were hid, betook themselves unto prayer, and be- 
sought him that the sin committed might wholly be 
put out of remembrance. Besides, that noble Judas 

20 exhorted the people to keep themselves from sin, 
forsomuch as they saw before their eyes the things 
that came to pass for the sins of those that were 
slain. And when he had made a gathering through- 
out the company to the sum of two thousand drachms 

23 of silver, he sent it to Jerusalem to offer a sin offering, 
doing therein very well and honestly, in that he was 
mindful of the resurrection : for if he had not hoped 
that they that were slain should have risen again, it 
had been superfluous and vain to pray for the dead. 



of Maccabees 5o Ch. 13; Ver. 1.7. 

And also in that he perceived that there was great Death of 
favour laid up for those that died godly, it was Menelaus 
an holy and good thought. Whereupon he made 
a reconciliation for the dead, that they might be 
delivered from sin. 5 

* In the hundred forty and ninth year it was told 
Judas, that Antiochus Eupator was coming with a 
great power into Judea, and with him Lysias his 
protector, and ruler of his affairs, having either of 
them a Grecian power of footmen, an hundred and 10 
ten thousand, and horsemen five thousand and three 
hundred, and elephants two and twenty, and three 
hundred chariots armed with hooks. 

Menelaus also joined himself with them, and with 
great dissimulation encouraged Antiochus, not for the 15 
safeguard of the country, but because he thought to 
have been made governor. But the King of kings 
moved Antiochus' mind against this wicked wretch, 
and Lysias informed the king that this man was the 
cause of all mischief, so that the king commanded to 20 
bring him unto Berea, and to put him to death, as the 
manner is in that place. Now there was in that 
place a tower of fifty cubits high, full of ashes, and 
it had a round instrument, which on every side hanged 
down into the ashes. And whosoever was con- 25 
demned of sacrilege, or had committed any other 
grievous crime, there did all men thrust him unto 
death. Such a death it happened that wicked man 
to die, not having so much as burial in the earth ; 



Ch. 13; Ver. 7.15. ^ Second Book 

Antiochus and that most justly : for inasmuch as he had com- 

eniers mitted many sins about the altar, whose fire and ashes 

"Judea were holy, he received his death in ashes. 

iv'tth an Now the king came with a barbarous and haughty 

Army mind to do far worse to the Jews, than had been 

done in his father's time. 

Which things when Judas perceived, he com- 
manded the multitude to call upon the Lord night 
and day, that if ever at any other time, he would 
10 now also help them, being at the point to be put 
from their law, from their country, and from the 
holy temple : and that he would not suffer the people, 
that had even now been but a little refreshed, to be 
in subjection to the blasphemous nations. So when 
15 they had all done this together, and besought the 
merciful Lord with weeping and fasting, and lying 
flat upon the ground three days long, Judas, having 
exhorted them, commanded they should be in a readi- 
ness. And Judas, being apart with the elders, deter- 
20 mined, before the king's host should enter into Judea, 
and get the city, to go forth and try the matter hi fight 
by the help of the Lord. So when he had com- 
mitted all to the Creator of the world, and exhorted 
his soldiers to fight manfully, even unto death, for 
25 the laws, the temple, the city, the country, and the 
commonwealth, he camped by Modin : and having 
given the watchword to them that were about him, 
Victory is of God ; with the most valiant and choice 
young men he went in into the king's tent by night, 

»44 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 13; Ver. 15-26. 

and slew in the camp about four thousand men, and Antiochus 
the chiefest of the elephants, with all that were upon Isf 'Judas 
him. And at last they filled the camp with fear and are made 
tumult, and departed with good success. This was Friends 
done in the break of the day, because the protection 5 
of the Lord did help him. 

Now when the king had taken a taste of the man- 
liness of the Jews, he went about to take the holds 
by policy, and marched toward Bethsura, which was 
a strong hold of the Jews : but he was put to flight, i^ 
failed, and lost of his men : for Judas had conveyed 
unto them that were in it such things as were neces- 
sary. But Rhodocus, who was in the Jews' host, 
disclosed the secrets to the enemies ; therefore he 
was sought out, and when they had gotten him, they 15 
put him in prison. 

The king treated with them in Bethsura the second 
time, gave his hand, took their's, departed, fought 
with Judas, was overcome ; heard that Philip, who 
was left over the affairs in Antioch, was desperatelv 20 
bent, confounded, intreated the Jews, submitted him- 
self, and sware to all equal conditions, agreed with 
them, and offered sacrifice, honoured the temple, and 
dealt kindly with the place, and accepted well of 
Maccabeus, made him principal governor from Ptole- 25 
mais unto the Gerrhenians ; came to Ptolemais : the 
people there were grieved for the covenants ; for they 
stormed, because they would make their covenants 
void : Lysias went up to the judgment seat, said as 

MS 



Ch. 14 ; Ver. 1-8. '^ Second Book 

Demetrius much as could be in defence of the cause, persuaded, 
s/ays pacified, made them well affected, returned to Antioch. 
Antiochus Thus it went touching the king's coming and 
d5 Lysias departing. 

5 * After three years was Judas informed, that Demet- 
rius the son of Seleucus, having entered by the haven 
of Tripolis with a great power and navy, had taken 
the country, and killed Antiochus, and Lysias his 
protector, 
lo Now one Alcimus, who had been high priest, and 
had defiled himself wilfully in the times of their 
mingling ivUh the Gentiles, seeing that by no means 
he could save himself, nor have any more access to 
the holy altar, came to king Demetrius in the hundred 
15 and one and fiftieth year, presenting unto him a crown 
of gold, and a palm, and also of the boughs which 
were used solemnly in the temple : and so that day 
he held his peace. Howbeit, having gotten oppor- 
tunity to further his foolish enterprise, and being 
20 called into counsel by Demetrius, and asked how the 
Jews stood affected, and what they intended, he 
answered thereunto : 

Those of the Jews that be called Assideans, whose 
captain is Judas Maccabeus, nourish war, and are 
=5 seditious, and will not let the realm be in peace. 
Therefore I, being deprived of mine ancestors' 
honour, I mean the high priesthood, am now come 
hither : first, verily for the unfeigned care I have of 
things pertaining to the king ; and secondly, even for 
146 



of Maccabees 5©» Ch. 14 ; Ver. 8-17. 

that I intend the good of mine own countrymen : for Demetr'iui 
all our nation is in no small misery through the incensed 
unadvised dealing of them aforesaid. Wherefore, O against 
king, seeing thou knowest all these things, be careful Judas 
for the country, and our nation, which is pressed on 5 
every side, according to the clemency that thou 
readily shewest unto all. For as long as Judas 
liveth, it is not possible that the state should be quiet. 

This was no sooner spoken of him, but others of 
the king's friends, being maliciously set against Judas, so 
did more incense Demetrius. And forthwith calling 
Nicanor, who had been master of the elephants, and 
making him governor over Judea, he sent him forth, 
commanding him to slay Judas, and to scatter them 
that were with him, and to make Alcimus high priest 15 
of the great temple. Then the heathen, that had fled 
out of Judea from Judas, came to Nicanor by flocks, 
thinking the harm and calamities of the Jews to be 
their welfare. 

Now when the Jews heard of Nicanor's copiing, 20 
and that the heathen were up against them, they cast 
earth upon their heads, and made supplication to him 
that had established his people for ever, and who 
always helpeth his portion with manifestation of his 
presence. So at the commandment of the captain as 
they removed straightways from thence, and came 
near unto them at the town of Dessau. Now Simon, 
Judas' brother, had joined battle with Nicanor, but 
was somewhat discomfited through the sudden silence 



Ch. i4;Ver. 17-27. ^ Second Book 

Nicanor of his enemies. Nevertheless Nicanor, hearing of 

^ Judas the manliness of them that were with Judas, and the 

make a courageousness that they had to fight for their country, 

Compact durst not try the matter by the sword. Wherefore 

s he sent Posidonius, and Theodotus, and Mattathias, 

to make peace. 

So when they had taken long advisement there- 
upon, and the captain had made the multitude ac- 
quainted therewith, and it appeared that they were 
10 all of one mind, they consented to the covenants, 
and appointed a day to meet in together by them- 
selves : and when the day came, and stools were set 
for either of them, Judas placed armed men ready in 
convenient places, lest some treachery should be sud- 
15 denly practised by the enemies : so they made a 
peaceable conference. 

Now Nicanor abode in Jerusalem, and did no hurt, 
but sent av/ay the people that came flocking unto 
him. And he would not willingly have Judas out of 
20 his sight : for he loved the man from his heart. He 
prajed him also to take a wife, and to beget children: 
so he married, was quiet, and took part of this life. 

But Alcimus, perceiving the love that was betwixt 
them, and considering the covenants that were made, 
23 came to Demetrius, and told him that Nicanor was 
not well affected toward the state ; for that he had 
ordained Judas, a traitor to his realm, to be the king's 
successor. Then the king being in a rage, and pro- 
voked with the accusations of the most wicked man, 
143 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 14; Ver. 27-35. 

wrote to Nicanor, signifying that he was much dis- N'lcanor's 
pleased with the covenants, and commanding him that Treachery 
he should send Maccabeus prisoner in all haste unto 
Antioch. When this came to Nicanor's hearing, he 
was much confounded in himself, and took it griev- 5 
ously that he should make void the articles which 
were agreed upon, the man being in no fault. But 
because there was no dealing against the king, he 
watched his time to accomplish this thing by policy. 

Notwithstanding, when Maccabeus saw that Nica- ^o 
nor began to be churlish unto him, and that he 
entreated him more roughly than he was wont, per- 
ceiving that such sour behaviour came not of good, 
he gathered together not a few of his men, and with- 
drew himself from Nicanor. But the other, knowing is 
that he was notably prevented by Judas' policy, came 
into the gieat and holy temple, and commanded the 
priests, that were offering their usual sacrifices, to 
deliver him the man. And when they sware that 
they could not tell where the man was whom he 20 
sought, he stretched out his right hand toward the 
temple, and made an oath in this manner : If ye will 
not deliver me Judas as a prisoner, I will lay this 
temple of God even with the ground, and I will 
break down the altar, and erect a notable temple unto 25 
Bacchus. After these words he departed. 

Then the priests lifted up their hands toward 
heaven, and besought him that was ever a defender 
of their nation, saying in this manner; Thou, O Lord 
M J49 



Ch. 14; Ver. 35-45. -d-^ Second Book 

Courage of all things, who hast need of nothing, wast pleased 

of Razis that the temple of thine habitation should be among 

us : therefore now, O holy Lord of all holiness, keep 

this house ever undefiled, which lately, was cleansed, 

5 and stop every unrighteous mouth. 

Now was there accused unto Nicanor one Razis, 
one of the elders of Jerusalem, a lover of his country- 
men, and a man of very good report, who for his 
kindness was called a father of the Jews. For in the 

10 former times, when they mingled not themselves with 
the Gentiles, he had been accused of Judaism, and 
did boldly jeopard his body and life with all vehe- 
mency for the religion of the Jews. So Nicanor, will- 
ing to declare the hate that he bare unto the Jews, 

IS sent above five hundred men of war to take him : for 

he thought by taking him to do the Jews much hui't. 

Now when the multitude would have taken the 

tower, and violently broken into the outer door, and 

bade that fire should be brought to burn it, he being 

so ready to be taken on every side fell upon his sword ; 
choosing rather to die manfully, than to come into 
the hands of the wicked, to be abused otherwise than 
beseemed his noble birth : but missing his stroke 
through haste, the multitude also rushing within the 

25 doors, he ran boldly up to the wall, and cast himself 
down manfully among the thickest of them. But 
they quickly giving back, and a space being made, he 
fell down into the midst of the void place. Never- 
theless, while there was yet breath within him, being 
150 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 15 ; Ver. 1-7. 

inflamed with anger, he rose up ; and though his Nicanor 
blood gushed out like spouts of water, and his resolves 
wounds were grievous, yet he ran through the midst to attack 
of the throng ; and standing upon a steep rock, when Judas 
as his blood was now quite gone, he plucked out his s 
bowels, and taking them in both his hands, he cast 
them upon the throng, and calling upon the Lord of 
life and spirit to restore him those again, he thus 
died. 

* But Nicanor, hearing that Judas and his company 10 
were in the strong places about Samaria, resolved 
without any danger to set upon them on the sabbath 
day. Nevertheless the Jews that were compelled to 
go with him said, O destroy not so cruelly and bar- 
barously, but give honour to that day, which he, that 15 
seeth all things, hath honoured with holiness above 
other days. Then the most ungracious wretch de- 
manded, if there were a Mighty one in heaven, that 
had commanded the sabbath day to be kept. And 
when they said. There is in heaven a living Lord, 20 
and mighty, who commanded the seventh day to be 
kept : then said the other. And I also am mighty 
upon earth, and I command to take arms, and to do 
the king's business. Yet he obtained not to have his 
wicked will done. 25 

So Nicanor in exceeding pride and haughtiness 
determined to set up a publick monument of his 
victory over Judas and them that were with him. 
But Maccabeus had ever sure confidence that the 



Ch. 15; Ver. 7-15. ^ Second Book 

Judas has Lord would help him : wherefore he exhorted his 

a Vision people not to fear the coming of the heathen against 

Iff encour- them, but to remember the help which in former 

ages his times they had received from heaven, and now to 

Men expect the victory and aid, which should come unto 

theretuith them from the Almighty. And so comforting them 

out of the law and the prophets, and withal putting 

them in mind of the battles that they won afore, he 

made them more cheerful. And when he had stirred 

10 up their minds, he gave them their charge, shewing 

them therewithal the falsehood of the heathen, and 

the breach of oaths. Thus he armed every one of 

them, not so much with defence of shields and spears, 

as with comfortable and good words : and beside that, 

IS he told them a dream worthy to be believed, as if it 

had been so indeed, which did not a little rejoice 

them. 

And this was his vision : That Onias, who had 
been high priest, a virtuous and a good man, reverend 
20 in conversation, gentle in condition, well spoken also, 
and exercised from a child in all points of virtue, 
holding up his hands prayed for the whole body of 
the Jews. This done, in like manner there appeared 
a man with gray hairs, and exceeding glorious, who 
25 was of a wonderful and excellent majesty. Then 
Onias answered, saying. This is a lover of the 
brethren, who prayeth much for the people, and for 
the holy city, to wit, Jeremias the prophet of God. 
Whereupon Jeremias holding forth his right hand 



ofMaccabees^^ Ch. 15; Ver. 15-22. 

gave to Judas a sword of gold, and in giving it spake Judas pre' 
thus, Take this holy sword, a gift from God, v]'\\}!\ pares to 
the which thou shalt wound the adversaries. meet 

Thus being well comforted by the words of Judas, Nicanor 
which were very good, and able to stir them up to 5 
valour, and to encourage the hearts of the young 
men, they determined not to pitch camp, but courage- 
ously to set upon them, and manfully to try the 
matter by conflict, because the city and the 
sanctuary and the temple were in danger. For the 10 
care that they took for their wives, and their 
children, their brethren, and kinsfolks, was in least 
account with them : but the greatest and principal 
fear was for the holy temple. Also they that were 
in the city took not the least care, being troubled for 15 
the conflict abroad. And now, when as all looked 
what should be the trial, and the enemies were already 
come near, and the army was set in array, and the 
beasts conveniently placed, and the horsemen set in 
wings, Maccabeus seeing the coming of the multi- 20 
tude, and the divers preparations of armour, and the 
fierceness of the beasts, stretched out his hands to- 
ward heaven, and called upon the Lord that worketh 
wonders, knowing that victory cometh not by arms, 
but even as it seemeth good to him, he giveth it to 25 
such as are worthy : therefore in his prayer he said 
after this manner ; 

O Lord, thou didst send thine angel in the time 
of Ezekias king of Judea, and didst slay in the host of 
153 



Ch. 15 ; Ver. 22-33- ^ Second Book 

Defeat iff Sennacherib an hundred fourscore and five thousand : 

Death o/" wherefore now also, O Lord of heaven, send a good 

Nkanor angel before us for a fear and dread unto them ; and 

through the might of thine arm let those be stricken 

5 with terror, that come against thy holy people to 

blaspheme. And he ended thus. Then Nicanor 

and they that were with him came forward with 

trumpets and songs. But Judas and his company 

encountered the enemies with invocation and prayer. 

10 So that fighting with their hands, and praying unto 
God with their hearts, they slew no less than thirty 
and five thousand men : for through the appearance 
of God they were greatly cheered. 

Now when the battle was done, returning again 

IS with joy they knew that Nicanor lay dead in his 
harness. Then they made a great shout and a noise, 
praising the Almighty in their own language. And 
Judas, who was ever the chief defender of the 
citizens both in body and mind, and who continued 

2o his love toward his countrymen all his life, com- 
manded to strike off Nicanor's head, and his hand 
with his shoulder, and bring them to Jerusalem. 
So when he was there, and had called them of 
his nation together, and set the priests before the 

25 altar, he sent for them that were of the tower, 
and shewed them vile Nicanor's head, and the hand 
of that blasphemer, which with proud brags he had 
stretched out against the holy temple of the Almighty. 
And when he had cut out the tongue of that ungodly 

'54 



of Maccabees ^ Ch. 15 ; Ver. 33-39. 

Nicanor, he commanded that they should give it by The City 
pieces unto the fowls, and hang up the reward of his Sas Peace 
madness before the temple. So every man praised 
toward the heaven the glorious Lord, saying, Blessed 
be he that hath kept his own place undefiled. He 5 
hanged also Nicanor's head upon the tower, an 
evident and manifest sign unto all of the help of the 
Lord. And they ordained all with a common de- 
cree in no case to let that day pass without solemnity, 
but to celebrate the thirteenth day of the twelfth 10 
month, which in the Syrian tongue is called Adar, 
the day before Mardocheus' day. 
— * — 
Thus went it with Nicanor : and from that time 
forth the Hebrews had the city in their power. And 
here will I make an end. And if / have done well, 15 
and as is fitting the story, it is that which I desired : 
but if slenderly and meanly, it is that which I could 
attain unto. For as it is hurtful to drink wine or 
water alone ; and as wine mingled with water is 
pleasant, and delighteth the taste : even so speech 20 
finely framed delighteth the ears of them that read 
the story. And here shall be an end. 



'55 



Notes 



FIRST MACCABEES 

p. I, II. 1-22. JUsiorica/Ijtfroduc^z'on, covering the period B.C. 
331-176. 

p. I, 1. 3. 'Chettiim' (or Chittim) = Cyprus, so called from its 
ancient capital Cition, but the name was afterwards freely applied 
to the islands and western coasts of the Mediterranean, and even 
to Greece and Macedonia. 

p. I, 1. 5. ' The first over Greece,' 'in former time over Greece' 
(R.V.). The text is perhaps corrupt, and these words, though 
well attested, may be the gloss of a reader who wished to fore- 
stall the idea that Alexander had first obtained a kingdom by 
conquering Darius. 

p. 1, 1. 12. ' Kings," principalities' (R.V.), probably satrapes. 

p. I, 1. 16. ' Parted his kingdom.' The story seems to have 
been credited by the author of i Mace, but must be regarded as 
purely legendary. 

J^irst divisio7t of the book (i. lo-ii. 70). Rise of the Maccabman 
revolt (r>. c. 1 75- 1 66). 

p. 2, 1. 2. The surname Epiphanes (Illustrious) was not in- 
aptly parodied into Epimanes (the Madcap). 

p. 2, 1. 4. ' Reigned,' became king. Cp. 2 Kings xv. 10. The year 
137 of the Seleucid era (cp. Introduction, p. i.) = B.c. 176-175. 

p. 2, 1. 6. The reference is to the Greek party led by Jason. 
Cp. 2 Mace. iv. 7 fF, 

p. 2, 1. 14. ' A place of exercise,* a gymnasium. 

p. 2, 1. 18. 'Were sold,' sold themselves. Cp. r Kings xxL 
20 ; Rom. vii. 14. 

p. 2, 11. 22-25. The reference is to the second Egj-ptian cam- 
157 



Notes. ^ The Books 

paign of Epiphanes (B.C. 170), and to Ptolemy VI., Philometor. 
C/>. 2 Mace V. I. 

p. 3, 1. II. These treasures consisted partly of money dedi- 
cated to God in the Temple treasury (the ' Corban ' of Mark vii. 
11), and partly of sums lodged in the bank of deposit mentioned 
in 2 Mace. iii. 10-22. 

p. 3, 1. 23. The ' chief collector ' was ApoUonius. Cj>. iii. 
10 ; 2 Mace. v. 24. 

p. 4, 1. 4. By ' the city of David ' is meant not the whole of 
Jerusalem, but the southern part of the Temple mount (' Sion'). 
As the writer usually applies the term to the Acra or citadel, 
which was garrisoned by the Syrians, the likelihood is that it 
' lay on the Temple hill, and presumably on the site of the later 
Antonia' (W. R. Smith), i.e., north-west of the Temple. 

p. 4, 1. 7. 'Nation' is used here loosely, almost in the sense 
of ' gang.' Cp. Isa. i. 4. 

p. 4, 1. 10. * They became,' ' it became,' as in ver. 36, where 
the stronghold is personified. Cj>. xiii. 51. 

p. 5, 11. 23-25. As the 25th Chislev (December) was un- 
doubtedly the date of the desecration (ver. 59, iv. 52-54), we 
must either regard the 15th as the day on which the pagan altar 
was built or commenced, or set down * fifteenth ' as an error on 
the part of the writer or of his Greek translator. The year 145 
= B.C. 168. By 'abomination of desolation' is meant the idol 
altar of ver. 59. The phrase was probably taken from the 
LXX. rendering of an obscure expression in Dan. xi. 31, and 
may mean abomination causin<^ desolation. 

p. 6, 1. 2. Lit., 'a book of the covenant.' Many would pos- 
sess only a part of the Pentateuch. 

p. 6, 1. 8. In I Mace, the word used to denote a heathen altar 
is always different from that which denotes the altar of God. 

p. 6, 1. 20. The cruelties of Epiphanes were the expression of 
God's wrath. Cp. ii. 49 ; 2 Kings iii. 27. 

p. 6, 11. 21-27. Genealogy of the Maccabees. Gaddisis gener- 
ally supposed to mean ' my fortune ' ; Thassi, ' the zealous,' or 
*the guide'; Maccabreus, 'the hammerer'; Avaran, 'the 
158 



of Maccabees 5^ Notes. 



piercer ' ; and Apphus, ' the dissembler. ' The names, however, 
may be merely distinctive epithets. 

p. 6, 1. 23. * Modin,' now el Medtjeh, between Joppa and Jeru- 
salem. 

p. ^, 1, I. The order of 'Friends' (counsellors) was estab- 
lished in connection with most Oriental monarchies. 

p. 8, 1. 9. 'Heaven forbid' (R.V.). 'God 'is absent from 
the book. 

p. 8, 1. 21. According to Josephus, his name was Apelles. 

p. 9, 1. 8. ' The host,' the forces = garrison in Acra. 

p. 10, 1. II. 'The Assideans,' or rather Hasidseans (Heb., 
hasTdini = ^ ■pions ones') were a body of Jews who before the 
Maccabaean revolt had banded themselves together in opposition 
to the Hellenising measures of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes. Their 
aims were purely religious, and they co-operated with the Mac- 
cabees only so long as they fought for the restoration of Jewish 
worship. Cj>. vii, 13. 

p. 10, 1. 17. 'Wicked men,' lawless men, i.e., apostate Jews. 

p. 10, 1. 23. ' Proud men,' sons of pride, a Hebraism. Cp. 
i. 21. 

p. 11,1. II. ' Our father,' z.«., our ancestor. .S'^^ Numb. xxv. 

13- 

p. II, 1. 12. 'Jesus,' Greek form of Joshua. Cp. Heb. iv. 8. 

p. II, 1. 15. 'The heritage of the land,' a heritage of land, 
viz. , the city of Hebron. Cp. Numb. xiv. 24. 

p. II, 1. 16. This passage has been viewed as Messianic; but 
even if the writer did contemplate the reign of the Messiah, he 
may not have meant to ascribe such an expectation to Mattathias. 

p. 12, 1. 3, Mattathias may not, of course, really have used 
the surname in the case of Judas any more than in that of Simon. 
In I Mace, the name Judas, in 2 Mace, the surname Maccabreus, 
is the usual designation. 

p. 12, 1. 10. The year 146 = 3.0. 167-166. 

Second division of the book (m. l-ix.22). Leadership of Judas 
Maccaba:us (^.C. 166-161). 

p. 12, 1. 21. 'The host'; rather, 'the camp,' as in ver. 41, 
159 



Notes. ^ The Books 



etc. , although in this book the Greek word usually means army. 
C/>. iii. 57, etc. 

p. 13, 1. 12. Cp. David's use of the sword of Goliath (l Sam. 
xxi. 9). 

p. 13, 1. 19. ' So he made him ready to go up' ; rather, * And 
he went up again,' but as the same army had not gone up pre- 
viously, we must render, with R.V. , 'And there went up with 
him also.' 

p. 13, 1. 23. 'Bethhoron.' On the highway between Lydda 
and Jerusalem, and divided by a precipitous pass into an upper 
and a lower division. C/. Josh. x. 16 ff. 

p. 13, 1. 28. Read: ' We are also faint.* ' We' is emphatic. 

p. 14, 1. 9. 'The Lord himself,' he himself. Most MSS. 
omit the substantive. Victory lies on whichever side God is, and 
He will be on our side seeing we have a good cause — that is the 
argument of Judas. 

p. 14, 1. 27. Owing to the impoverished state of the Syrian 
treasury, soldiers had to be paid in advance. 

p. 15, 1. 23. The Seleucid year 147 = 8.0. 166-165. 

p. 16, 1. I. Ptolemy, the son of Dorymenes, was surnamed 
Macron (2 Mace. x. 12), and was governor of Ccelesyria and 
Phoenicia (2 Mace. viii. S). 

p. 16, 1. 2. Nicanor was 'the son of Patroclus, one of the 
king's foremost Friends' (2 Mace. -viii. 9). In i Mace. Gorgias, 
and in 2 Mace. Nicanor, is given the chief prominence. 

p. 16, 1. 8. Emmaus. Now 'Amwas, twenty-two Roman 
miles from Jerusalem. 

p. 16, 1. 10. ' Servants.' Although this is the best attested 
reading, that of Josephus [A7ii. XII. vii. 3) and the Syriac, viz., 
' fetters,' may with R.V. be accepted as an emendation. 

p. 17, 1. 3. ' Maspha,' Greek form of Heb. Mizpeh or Mizpah 
('watch-tower'). The Mizpeh referred to here is that in the 
tribe of Benjamin, the modern Neby SamwU (2970 feet). Cp. 
I Sam. vii. 6-9. 

p. 17,1.8. The Greek text appears to be a mistranslation. As 
it stands, the meaning seems to be that the heathen sought to find 
t6o 



of Maccabees ^ Notes. 



in the law analogies to their own mythology. So R.V. The 
original Hebrew may, however, have read ' upon which the 
heathen had scrawled the likenesses of their idols,' in order, i.e., 
to outrage Jewish religious feeling. 

p. 17, 1. 10. On the Nazarite vows see Numb. vi. 3, 5. 

p. 18, 1. I. 'The camp,' the army. 

p. 18, 1. 9. ' As may be the will in heaven.' As usual, the 
author avoids the use of the Divine Name. 

p. 18, 1. 1 1. ' Removed out of the camp,' ' the army removed ' 
(R.V.). 

p. 19,1. 5. ' If peradventure theLord will,' 'if peradventure it' 
{i.e. heaven) 'will,' etc. R.V. renders, 'if he will have us.' Cp. 
Matt, xxvii. 43. 

p. 19, 1. 17. ' Gazera,' the ancient Gezer (Josh. x. 33, etc.), the 
Mont Gisart of the Crusades and the modern Tell-el-Jezcr. 

p. 20, I. 6. 'The land of strangers,' i.e., of the Philistines. 

p. 20, 1. 8. 'Blue silk.' Omit 'silk.' The Greek word is 
hyacinth, which denotes a blue or violet purple as distinct 
from the still more precious red 'sea purple' or Tyrian dye, 
also mentioned here. 

p. 20, 1. 10. ' Praised the Lord in heaven,' ' gave praise unto 
heaven' (R.V.), or perhaps 'towards heaven,' i.e., with eyes 
and voices directed heavenwards. Cp. ver. 55. 

p. 20, 1. 20. ' The next year,' i.e., the Seleucld year 148 = 6.0. 
165-164. 

p. 20, 1. 24. 'Bethsura,' or Beth-zur ('house of the rock'), 
between Halhul and Gedor (Josh. xv. 58), among the mountains 
of Judah {Beit-Stir). 

p. 21, 1. 24. ' Shrubs growing.' This may be no exaggeration ; 
in semi-tropical lands the growth of vegetation is rapid. 

p. 22, 1. 14. Although it was recognised that prophecy had 
ceased (ix. 27), there was an expectation abroad that there 
would yet arise a great prophet who would declare God's will 
about this and other difficult problems. Cp. xiv. 41. There is 
no specific reference to the Messiah. 

p. 22, L 21. 'The altar of burnt offerings and of incense.' It 
161 



Notes. ^ The Books 



is not easy to understand what is meant by this, as the altar of 
burnt-offerings stood in the outer court, and has been previously 
mentioned (ver. 47). Yet it is the reading of the most ancient 
MSS. 

p. 23, 1. 5. Omit ' look.' The date was the third anniversary 
of the profanation. Cp. i. 59. 

p. 23, 1. 12. The Feast of the Dedication or Renewal (John 
X. 22) became henceforth an annual observance (ver. 59 ; 2 Mace. 
X. 6-8). 

p. 24, 1. 9. ' Arabattine,' Akrabattine, so called from the high 
ridge Akrabbim (Numb, xxxiv. 4, etc.), on the south-east border 
of Judah. 

p. 24, 1. II. 'Abated,' an archaism for bated, from French 
abattre, to beat down. 

p. 24, 1. 13. ' Bean,' the name of a chief, or of a place other- 
wise unknown. 

p. 24, 1. 23. ' Jazer' (or Ja'azer), east of Jordan, in Gad. 

p. 24, 1. 25. ' Galaad' = Gilead, i.e., Jewish territory east of 
Jordan. 

p. 24, 1. 28. ' Dathema,' within a few hours of Bosor (ver. 29). 

p. 25, I. 7. 'The places of Tobie' (R.V., 'Tubias'), the land 
of Tob. Cp. Judges xi. 3 ; 2 Mace. xii. 17. 

p. 25, 1. 14. 'Ptolemais' = Accho (Judges i. 31), the modern 
Acre. 

p, 26, 1. II. ' Arbattis.' This place has not been identified. 

p. 26, 1. 17. ' Nabathites' or Nabathseans, a nomadic tribe of 
Arabs, whose capital was Petra. 

p. 26, 1. 20. ' Bosora,' probably = Bosra or Bostra, in the 
Hauran. 

p. 26, 1. 21, 'Bosor,' probably 5«jr, in the south of the Leja. 
Alema, Casphor (Casphon, ver. 36) and Maked have not 
been identified. Carnaim = 'Carnion' of 2 Mace. xii. 21,26; 
' Ashteroth-Karnaim ' of Gen. xiv. 5, and 'Ashtaroth' of Deut. 
i. 4. 

p. 26, 1. 25. There may have been some smaller forts inside 
the outer ramparts of Dathema. 
162 



of Maccabees ^^ Notes. 



p. 27, 1. 24. ' Raphon.' Perhaps = Raphana, one of the cities 
of the Decapolis. 

p. 28, 1. II. 'Scribes of the people.' 'The registrars men- 
tioned in Deut. xx. 5-9, who kept the lists of the troops, 
assigned the place of encampment, and looked after the order of 
the march ' (Ewald). 

p. 28, 1. 26. ' Ephron,' east of Jordan, over against Bethshan ; 
now Gefnin. 

p. 29, 1. 17. ' Bethsan ' or Bethshan ('house of security') 
known during the Greek period as Scythopolis, now Beisdtt, 
four miles west of the Jordan. Cp. i Sam. xxxi. 10, 12. 

p. 29, 1. 22. ' Not one of them.' The writer is perhaps merely 
recording the tradition of his time. 

p. 30, 1. 25. Instead of ' Samaria,' the old Latin reads Afarissa 
(Mareshah or Moresheth-Gath, Micah i. 14 f.). This town, 
between Hebron and Ashdod, certainly lay more on the line of 
march. Cp. 2 Mace. xii. 35. 

p. 31, 1. 5. ' Elymais,' etc. The statement of A.V. is geo- 
graphically inaccurate, Elymais (the O.T. 'Elam') being not 
the name of a city, but of a province between Media and the 
Persian Gulf Read, 'in Elymais in Persia there was a city' (R.V.). 

p. 31, 1. 24. ' The abomination.' So called from the standpoint 
of the writer, who also puts into the mouth of the dying monarch 
such sentiments as he considered appropriate. 

p. 32, 1. 17. Although Persia was part of his kingdom, it was 
virtually a foreign land to Antiochus. 

p. 32, 1. 18. ' Philip.' A Phrygian (2 Mace. v. 22), and com- 
panion of Antiochus in youth (2 Mace. ix. 29). 

p. 32, 1. 22. ' Died there,' etc. According to Polybius, at the 
upland town of Tabae. The year 149 — B.C. 164-163. 

p. 32, 1. 26. ' Young.' According to Appian, only nine years 
of age. 

p. 33. 1. 6. ' Mounts for shot,' shooting towers and engines of 
war. 

p. 34, 1. 9. ' Bathzacharias.' Between Jerusalem and Bethzur^ 
now Beit Sakariyeh. 

163 



Notes. ^ The Books 



p. 34, 1. 14. The passage must mean either (i) that the juice 
of grapes and mulberries was intended to represent blood to the 
elephants, and so prepare them for battle ; or (2) that this liquor, 
of which they were fond, was shown to the animals and then 
withdrawn in order to madden them. 

p. 34, 1. 16. 'Among the armies,' 'among the phalanxes' 
(R.V.). 

p. 34, 1. 21. More correctly, as R.V., 'These were ready 
beforehand, wheresoever the beast was.' 

p. 34, 1. 27. ' Two and thirty.' This must either be a mis- 
translation or a copyist's error, as a war elephant seldom carried 
more than three or four men. 

p. 35, 1. 2. ' Giving them signs what to do.' The text is in 
disorder. R.V. translates, 'striking terror' (into the enemy) 
'and protected by the phalanxes.' 

p. 35, 1. 15. ' Savaran.' Cp. ii. 5, where the surname is given 
as Avaran, probably the true form. 

p. 35, 1. 18. 'Gave himself to deliver his people' (R.V. ). 
p. 36, 1. 10. C/>. Shakespeare, i Henry VI., I. iv. 15, 'A 
piece of ordnance I have placed.' 

p. 36, 1. 12. ' Held them battle.' An archaism = ' fought.' 
p. 36, 11. 13-17. Following the best attested reading, R.V. 
renders, ' But there were no victuals in the sanctuary. ' 

p. 37, 1. 22. Demetrius I., Soter, son of Seleucus IV., Philo- 
pator. The statement that he landed ' with a few men ' is at 
variance with 2 Mace. xiv. i. 

p. 37, 1. 25. The tenses are not properly represented in A.V. 
Read with R.V. : '^Vhen he would enter . . . laid hands on 
Antiochus.' 

p. 38, 1. 24. ' Scribes.' The term is used in its technical sense 
ctf professional students of the law, and is therefore not = 
Assidxans. Cp. note on ii. 42. 

p. 39, 1. 4. ' He '(the psalmist) ' wrote.' This is virtually the 
usual form of quotation from Scripture. Cj>. John v. 46. The 
words quoted are from Ps. Ixxix. 2, 3. 
p. 39, 1. 13- ' Bezeth,' unidentified. 
164 



of Maccabees 5o» Notes. 



p. 39, 1. 14. ' The men that had forsaken him.' R. V. renders 
'deserters.' The text is obscure, but the reference seems to be 
to Jews who had allied themselves with the Greek party, but 
were distrusted by Bacchides. 

p. 40, 1. 20. ' Capharsalama,' unidentified. 

p. 40, 1. 21. ' Five thousand.' The correct reading is probably 
500. 

p. 41, 1. 7. With R.V. omit 'O Lord' here and in ver. 41. 

p. 41, !. 15. 'Adasa.' Probably Khurbet Adasa, between 
Jerusalem and Bethhoron. 

p. 41, !. 17. 'Of the Assyrians.' R.V. rightly omits these 
words as a gloss. Cp. the account in 2 Kings xvii. and xix., 
and Byron's verses on 'The Destruction of Sennacherib.' 

p. 41, 1. 24. The date of this battle (Adar= March B.C. 161) 
is given with reference to the future annual observance of the 
day (ver. 49). 

p. 42, 1. 16. 'The Romans.' While there is no reason to 
doubt the fact of a treaty having been entered into between the 
Jews and the Romans, the narrative is marked by several errors 
of detail. Stanley {Jewish Church, iii. 350) gives the follow- 
ing list : — ' (i) Spain was not wholly reduced till the reduction of 
Cantabria, B.C. 19. (2) The elephants at the battle of Magnesia 
were not 120, but (Livy, x.xxviii. 39) 54. (3) Antiochus was 
not taken prisoner. (4) His dominions did not include India. 
(5) The conquest of /Etolia was fifteen years later. (6) The 
Senate was not 320, but 300. (7) One consul is substituted for 
two. (8) The Roman factions are ignored.' 

p. 42, 1. 22. It is uncertain whether the reference is to the 
Galatians of Asia Minor or to the Gauls of Upper Italy. The 
mention of ' tribute ' seems to favour the latter view. 

p. 43, 11. 4-6. Philip III. of Macedon was defeated at Cynos- 
cephalae in B.C. 197 ; Perseus, his successor, at Pydna in 
B.C. 168 ; Antiochus III., the Great, at Magnesia in B.C. 
190. 

p. 46, 1. 7. Read, as marg. and R.V., ' the right wing (of his 
army).' 

N j6s 



Notes. ^ The Book? 

p. 46, 1. 8. ' Galgala ' = Gilgal. The site has not been definitely 
fixed. Josephus has 'Galilee' (AnL XII. xi. i). 

p. 46, 11. 9, 10. ' Massaloth ... in Arbela.' Neither place 
nor district can be with certainty identified. The same is true of 
Berea, which is not the place mentioned in 2 Mace, xiii, 4. 

p. 46, 1. 15. ' Eleasa' or Elasa, perhaps = A7i«r3f/ //'aji, be- 
tween the two Bethhorons. 

p. 46, 1. 27. ' Dehorted,' an archaism, properly the converse of 
'exhorted.' R.V. renders 'dissuaded.' 

p. 47, 1. 9. ' In the foreward,' ' in the front of the battle' (R.V.) 
— another archaic usage. 

p. 47, 1. 19. 'Azotus' (not = Ashdod) is perhaps a mistaken 
rendering of the Heb. Ashedoih — ' declivities ' of ' the mountain' 
or hill country of Judsa. 

p. 48, II. 3, 4. ' Not written.' See Introduction, p. xvii. ff. 

Thi7-d division of the book (ix. 23-xii. 53). Leadership of 
fonathan the high priest (B.C. 191-143). 

p. 48, 1. 22. ' Prince and captain,' ruler and leader. Only 
Simon had the title of prince or ethnarch (xv. i, 2). 

p. 49, 1. I. 'Asphar,' probably i5i'r.S'g/>^z<3, south-west of Engedi. 

p. 49, 1. 2-p. 50, 1. 3. The passage is difficult. A.V. regards 
vers. 35-42 as parenthetical, and renders the aorists as pluperfects. 
This furnishes a reason for Bacchides crossing the Jordan, but is 
perhaps not grammatically allowable. The fight seems to have 
taken place on the east of Jordan, in which case Jonathan and 
his followers swam over to the west side. 

p. 49, 1. 8. ' Medaba,' a town of Moab. 

p. 49, 1. 12. ' Nadabatha,' east of Jordan, but unidentified. 

p. 49, 1. 29. At certain seasons of overflow (Josh. iii. 15) the 
Jordan cuts a new channel from a point on its east bank to the 
north-east corner of the Dead Sea. The marsh of Jordan = the 
delta thus formed. 

p. 50, 1. 21. G. A. Smith takes Thamnatha-Pharathoni here 
as 'evidently one place,' and would find it in Pir'aton in IVady 
Far^ak. Tephon probably = Tappuah, now Teffiih, three miles 
west of Hebron. 

166 



of Maccabees i)^ Notes. 

p. 50, 1. 29-p. 51,1.4. The dateislyar (=:May) B.C. 160-159. 
'The prophets ' = Haggai and Zechariah, through whose instru- 
mentality Zerubbabel's temple was built. 

p. 51, 1. 27. ' Bethbasi ' has not been identified. 

p. 52, 1. 8. ' Odonarkes.' There seems to be no authority for 
this reading. R. V. has * Odomera,' a name otherwise unknown. 

p. 52, 1. 29. ' Machmas'=Michmash {Mukhm&s), four miles 
south-east of Bethel. 

p. 53, 1. 3. The i6oth year of the Seleucid era=B.c. 153-152. 
Alexander (Balas) was in reality a pretender. 

p. 54, 1. 19. The office of high priest had been vacant for 
seven years, i.e., since the death of Alcimus. 

p. 54, 1.21. 'A purple robe and a crown of gold ' = emblems of 
royalty (viii. 14), as well as special tokens of royal favour towards 
distinguished persons (vers. 62, 64 ; Esther viii. 15). 

p. 54, 1. 24. The 15th Tishri of the year i6o = B.c. 153. 

P- 55) 1. 17. ' Of the seed,' i.e., of the crop yielded by it. 

p. 55, 1. 20. 'The three governments' or toparchies (xi. 28) = 
Aphaerema, Lydda, and Ramathaim (xi. 34). The words ' and 
Galilee ' are either an error or a textual corruption. 

P- 55> !• 23. ' Holy,' i.e., regarded as sacred to God. 

p. 56, 1. 27. Read 'the places suitable,' i.e., where the money 
could most easily be spared. 

p. 57, 1. II. 'Out of the king's revenues' (R.V.). 

p. 57, 1. 21. ' Entreated,' an archaism for ' treated.' Cp. xi. 26. 

p. 57, 11. 25, 26. R.\'., following another and strongly attested 
reading, transposes the names Demetrius and Alexander. 

p. 58,1. I. Ptolemy VI., Fhilometer(B.c. 180-146), is referred 
to. 

p. 59, 1. 15. 'Chief Friend,' a higher order, probably, than 
that of ' Friend.' 

p. 59, 1. 16. Rather, 'a captain and governor of a province' 
(R.V.). The meaning is that Jonathan was invested with both 
the military and the civil command in addition to his spiritual 
supremacy as high priest. 

p. 59, 1. 24. More correctly, ' Co^lesyria ' = the hollow between 
1O7 



Notes. ^ The Books 

the Lebanons, but in the Greek period used as the designation 
for all Eastern Palestine. 

p. 60, 1. 7. ' Twice,' as recorded in vi. 47 and ix. 6, 18. 

p. 61, 1. 8. Render, ' And the horsemen were scattered in the 
plain, and they ' {i.e., the infantry) ' fled.' 

p. 61, 1. 9. ' Beth-dagon' = house (temple) of Dagon, com- 
monly regarded as a fish god, but by some connected with dagan, 

* corn.' 

p. 6.1, 1. 23. 'Accaron' = Ekron ('^i'/r), nine miles from the sea. 

p. 62, 1. 18. ' Eleutherus,' a winter torrent dividing Syriafrom 
Phoenicia. 

p. 63, 1. 15. Lit., as A.V. marg. and R.V., 'they that were in 
his strongholds were slain by them that were in the strong- 
holds,' i.e., the garrisons placed by Ptolemy in the fortified 
towns (ver. 3) were slain by the native population. 

p. 64, 1. 14. Although ' with the country of Samaria' is found 
in all the MSS., yet in view of x. 30 and xi. 34 we must read 

* of Samaria,' or 'which were added to Judtea from Samaria.' 
The Greek translator seems to have misunderstood the Hebrew 
text. 

p. 64, 11. 27, 28. ' Apherema,' probably = Ephraim (John xi. 54) 
= Ophrah of Benjamin, now Taiyibeh. Lydda = Lud (i Chron. 
viii. 12), between Joppa and Jerusalem. Ramathem or Rama- 
thaim = Ramah ( I Sam. i. l) in Ephraim. 

p. 65, 1. 19. ' Tryphon ' {.dcbauchi) was only a surname. His 
real name was Diodotus. 

p. 66, 1. 12. The numbers here and in p. 66, 1. 20, are pro- 
bably exaggerated. 

p. 67, 1. 17. ' Four,' i.e., the 'three ' of ver. 34, and probably 
Ekron (x. 89). 

p. 67, 1. 23. ' The Ladder o{Tyx&,' xhtxao^&xn Rds-en-Nakfirah, 
on the coast between Tyre and Ptolemais, is a lofty headland, the 
ascent of which is made by a steep zigzag path cut out of the 
rock. Hence the name ' Ladder.' 

p. 68, 1. 8. ' Cades' or Kedesh ('holy'), in Naphtali, a city 
of refuge. 

168 



of Maccabees ^ Notes. 



p. 68, 1. 17. ' Gennesar ' = Gennesareth. The earliest occur- 
rence of this name for the Sea of Galilee. ' Gen' = garden ; 
• Nesar ' = Galilee. 

p. 68, 1. 18. ' Hazor,' in Naphtali, south of Kedesh, overlook- 
ing Lake Merom. 

p. 69, 1. 21. ' The elders,' etc., i.e. i\\t gerousia or senate, later 
= Sanhedrin. 

p. 69, 1. 25. Although ' Darius' is the reading of the MSS., 
ver. 20 shows that the correct form is Arms. 

p. 70, 1. 23. ' Amity,' an archaism for political friendship. Cp. 
Shakespeare, 3 Hen. VI., III. iii. 53 f. : — 

' First to do greetings to thy royal person ; 
And then to crave a league of amiiy ; 
And lastly to confirm that amity 
With nuptial knot.' 

p. 70, 1. 28. Read, with R.V., ' which they sent to Onias.' 
' Oniares ' is a wrong reading due to a careless scribe, who com- 
bined the dative Onia with the Areios of ver. 20. 

p. 71, 1. I . Although there was really no race afiSnity between 
the Jews and the Spartans, it is quite credible that they may 
have formed a friendly alliance, cemented by written documents. 
But this is noc to say that we have these in the letters before us, 
which are probably attempts to restore the lost originals. 

p. 71, 1. 14. ' Amathis,' Amathitis = the Syrian Hamath. 

p. 71, 1. 24. After 'camp' supply 'and departed.' This is 
necessary in order to make ver. 29 intelligible. 

p. 72, 1. 18. 'The brook * = Kidron. 

p. 72, 1. 20. ' Caphenatha.' The derivation of this name is 
unknown. 

p. 72,1. 21. 'Adi<la' = Hadid (Ezraii. 33,etc.), fourmilesfrom 
Lydda. By ' Seph jla ' (the LXX. rendering of the Heb. She- 
phelah) is meant the region of low hills between the maritime 
plain and the high central range. 

p. 73, 1. 26. ' The great plain ' = the Plain of Esdraelon, not 
the Shephelah {see the preceding note). 
169 



Notes. -^ The Books 



Fourth division of the book(yA\\. i-xvi. 24). Administration 
of Simon the high priest (B.C. 143-135). 

p. 74, 1. 5. Jonathan was supposed to have been already 
slain (p. 73, 1. 29). 

p. 76, 1. 5. ' Adora ■=Adorain of 2 Chron. xi. 9, now D^ra, 
near Hebron. 

p. 76, 1. 14. 'Bascama' remains unidentified. 

p. 76, 1. 28. 'AH their armour,' 'all manner of arms' (R.V.). 

p. 77, 1. 18. Apparently a gold sceptre in the form of a palm 
branch. 

p. 78, 1. 3. The Seleucid year i70 = B.c. 143-142. 

p. 78, 1. 8. For ' Gaza' we must, with R.V., accept the emen- 
dation 'Gazara.' This is the reading in Josephus, and is sup- 
ported by other passages of I Mace, itself (xiv. 7, xv. 28, 
xvi. i). 

p. 79, 1. 16. 'John.' Afterwards the high priest and Prince 
Hyrcanus. 

p. 79, 1. 22. The reference is to Arsaces VI. =Mithridates I. 

p. 80, 1. 4. ' Made an entrance,' ' made it an entrance ' (R.V.). 

p. 80, 1. 21. 'To fray them,' i.e., to make them afraid. Cp. 
Zech. i. 21. 

p. 81,1. 10. * The rulers of the Lacedemonians ' = the .£y'/^i7rj-. 

p. 81, 1. 17. 'Council of the people,' 'the public records,' 
(R.V.). 

p. 81, 1. 26. ' After this.' Unless this was a second mission, 
ver. 24 does not occupy its proper position chronologically. 

p. 82, 1. 9. 'At Saramel,' ' in Asaramel ' (R.V., which inserts 
the words at the end of ver. 27). The translator has evidently 
retained the original Hebrew word or words, which must have 
been either the name of a place or part of Simon's title. Per- 
haps the original phrase was wesar-^ain-'cl= ' and prince of the 
people of God,' i.e. , ethnarch. 

p. S:i, 1. 25. 'That the Jews.' 'That' is to be omitted as a 
repetition by mistake from the previous verse. 

p. 83, 1. 27. 'For ever, until.' The one expression declares 
that these offices were to be hereditary in Simon's family, the 
170 



of Maccabees ^ Notes. 



other, that this was subject to such alteration as God might 
enjoin through ' a faithful prophet.' The want of the article 
renders a reference to the Messiah scarcely probable. Cp. 
iv. 46. 

p. 84, 1. 17. 'Governor,' h'i., ethnarch = ' ruler of a nation.' 
The title was applied to vassal princes like Simon {c/>. 2 Cor. 
xi. 32), and also to the head of the Jewish community in 
Alexandria. 

p. 84, 1. 24. The allusion is to Antiochus VII., Sidetes (b.c^ 
138-128). 

p. 85, 1. 12. Of these coins, silver and copper, there are 
numerous specimens extant. They ' were formed after the 
Greek models, but give no name or portrait profile of any high 
priest or prince. They are adorned with simple symbols, e.g., 
a cup, a lily branch, a grape-cluster, a palm, etc. For en- 
gravings of them, see Madden, Coins of the Jews (1881), p. 67 ff.' 
(I Mace, in Catub. Bible for Schools, p. 251). 

p. 85, 1. 27. 'Dora!,' now TantCirah, on the coast, north of 
Cresarea. 

p. 86, 1. II. Probably Lucius Calpurnius Piso, a consul along 
with M. Popilius Lcenas, B.C. 139. His name is given in the 
Fasti as Cneius, but the reading is doubtful. 

p. 86, 1. II. Ptolemy Energetes II. (Physcon), crowned 
B.C. 146. 

p. 86, 1. 27. The references are probably to Attalus II., King 
of Pergamus, and Ariarthes V., King of Cappadocia. 

p. 86, 1. 29. ' Sampsames,' probably Samsoun, in Pontus ; 
Delus (or Delos), the smallest of the Cyclades ; Myndus, a coast 
town in Caria ; Sicyon, in the Peloponnesus ; Samos, an island 
in the /Egean ; Halicarnassus, the capital of Caria ; Phaselis, in 
Lycia ; Cos, one of the Cyclades ; Side, in Pamphylia ; Aradus, 
an island and city on the Phoenician coast ; Gortyna, a city in 
Crete ; Cnidus, in Caria ; Cyrene, the capital of Libya. 

p. 88, 1. 19. ' Orthosias ' lay a few miles north of Tripolis. 

p. 88, 1. 23. ' Cedron,' perhaps Katra, three miles south-west of 
Ekron. 

171 



Notes. ^ The Books 



p. 89, 1. 16. Hitherto the Jews had possessed no cavalry. 

p. 89, 1. 21. ' He and his people.' The reference is probably 
to John. 

p. 89, 1. 28. With R.V., omit 'holy.' 

p. 90, 1. 6. 'They fled,' i.e., those who did not gain the 
fortress. 

p. 90, 1. 18. ' Mattathias' was the youngest of Simon's three 
sons. Cp. ver. 2. The date is B.C. 135. Sabat (or Sebat) 
corresponded nearly to our February. Cp. Zech. i. 7. 

p. 90, 1. 22. ' Docus ' (or Dok), now 'Aiti DAk, four miles north- 
west of Jericho. 

p. 91, 1. 14. 'To make him away,' i.e., to make away with 
him. 

p. 91, 1. 17. ' In the Chronicles,' lit., 'in the book of days.' 
This record has not been preserved. 



SECOND MACCABEES 



First letter of the Palestinian Jews to their brethren in Egypt 
(i. 1-9). 

p. 92, 1. 12. Demetrius II., Nicator (B.C. 145-138), is probably 
the king alluded to. Cp, I Mace. x. 67, xi. 15-19. If the 
w riter meant Demetrius I. , Soter, he has given the wrong date. 
The Seleucid year 169= B.C. 144-143. 

p. 92, 1. 22. ' Casleu ' (Chislev) — December. This shows that 
the Feast of the Dedication is intended. The real Feast of 
Tabernacles was in the month Tishri (October). Cp. x. 6. 

p. 92, 1. 23. ' In the hundred fourscore and eighth year.' 
These words are better included in ver. 9. In this case they 
give the date of the preceding letter. The year i88 = B.C. 125- 
124. Some MSS. read 148 instead of 188. 
172 



of Maccabees 5^ Notes. 



Second letter of the Palestinian Jews to their brethren in Egypt 
(i. lo-ii. i8). 

This letter is undated, but was probably written just after 
the death of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes (b. c. 164). 

P- 93' 1- 3- 'Aristobulus,' the well-known peripatetic philo- 
sopher. 

P- 93> '• 9- 'The leader ' = Antiochus Epiphanes. 

p. 93, 1. II. ' Nanea,' a Syrian goddess = the Phoenician 
Astarte. 

p. 93, 1. 23. ' The ungodly,' i.e., Antiochus and his troops. 
The whole incident is unhistorical, but possibly the writer 
erroneously transfers to Epiphanes certain events which befell 
Antiochus the Great, who lost his life while attempting to rob 
a temple of Belus in Elymais. 

p. 93, 1. 28. The writer accepts the legend that the fire 
which fell from heaven at the dedication of Solomon's temple 
had been preserved. Nehemiah, of course, did not build, but 
only restored the temple. 

p. 94, I. 8. 'King of Persia," z'.^., Artaxerxes Longimanus 
(Neh. ii. 4 fi). 

p. 94, 1. 9. Unless with some MSS. we omit ' us,' it must 
be regarded as='our countrymen,' or as inadvertently taken 
over by the writer from his authorities. 

p. 94, 1. 22. A notable example of the post-exilic tendency to 
multiply titles for God. Cp. the Prayer of Manasses. 

p. 95, 1. I. ' Them that serve.' This is not apposite, as per- 
mission had been given by Cyrus and Artaxerxes for Jews to 
return to Palestine. 

P- 95> 1- 7- ' Psalms ' ; rather, ' the hymns ' (R.V.). 

p. 95, 1. 9. • To be poured on.' Possibly ' to be confined by 
means of great stones' (Rawlinson). The Greek text is here 
obscure. 

p. 95, 1. 20. ' Naphthar.' The term is variously spelt by 
copyists, but the reference is probably to Naphtha, although no 
Hebrew word at all resembling this means ' cleansing.' 

p. 95, 1. 22. Possibly lost apocryphal works purporting to 
have been kept during the Exile. Cp. ver. 13. 
173 



Notes. <^ The Books 



p. 95, 1. 28. ' When they see,' on seeing. 

p. 97, 11. 2-4. ' Books concerning the kings,' i.e., the Books 
of Samuel and Kings. 

p. 97, 1. 6. ' Lost,' 'scattered' (R.V.). 

p. 97, 1. 14. * The sanctuary,' the hallowing = re-sanctification 
of the Temple. 

Author's preface (ii. 19-32). 

p. 97, 1. 23- ' Manifest signs.' The Greek word denotes any 
visible appearance of the gods. Such 'signs' are of frequent 
occurrence in 2 Mace. Cp. iii. 25 ff., v. 2 f., etc. 

p. 97) 1. 25. ' Judaism ' — in contrast to Hellenism : a late usage. 

p. 98, 1. 4. 'The infinite number,' ' the confused mass of the 
numbers ' (R.V.). 

p. 98, 1. II. ' Therefore,' and while. 

p. 98, 1. 16. ' Author,' historian. 

p. 98, 1. 20. ' Set it out,' burn in and paint (it). The reference 
is to the process of decoration by encaustic. 

p. 98, 1. 29. ' That it is,' for it is. 

First division of the book (^\\\. i-iv. 6). Preliminary history 
of the Maccabieaii insurrection (B.C. 176). 

P' 99» !• 5- Onias III., son of Simon II., and high priest from 
B.C. 198-175, 

p. 99, I. 8. Seleucus IV., Philopator (B.C. 187-176). 

p. 99, 1. 12. ' Governor.' Apparently = general overseer or 
guardian. 

p. 99, 1. 13. 'Disorder,' 'the ruling of the market ' (R.V. , 
which follows another reading). 

p. 99, 1. 14. Possibly the correct reading is 'Apollonius of 
Tarsus.' The text is obscure. 

p. 99, 1.17. ' Infinite,' ' untold' (R. v.). The Temple treasury 
was used, like our modern banks, for thesafecustody of valuables. 

p. lOi, 1. 7. 'Kept in ward' (R.V.), in accordance with 
Eastern custom. 

p. 101,1. 17. ' Executed,' set about executing. 

p. 101, 1. 19. 'The Lord of spirits,' i.e., of angels. This 
designation for God is common in other writings of the period, 
e.g.. The Booh of Enoch. 

i74 



of Maccabees ^ Notes. 



p. loi, 1. 23. The Persian general ' Artybius used to ride 
on a horse that had been taught to rear up against an armed 
enemy' (Herod, v. 11). 

p. 102, 1, 3. ' Ratfelle found in this scene a subject for his 
brush, when he sought to depict for the walls of the Vatican the 
triumph of Pope Julius II. over the enemies of the Pontificate' 
(Bissell). 

p. 102, 1. 9. Omit ' with his weapon,' and read ' manifestly 
made to recognise' (R.V.). 

p. 103,1. 17. 'The keeping of the treasury,' z.i;., the guarding 
of it by angels. 

p. 103, 1. 22. Render, as R.V., 'And him that was the 
benefactor of the city, and the guardian of his fellow-countr}-- 
men, and a zealot for the laws, he dared to call a conspirator 
against the state.' 

p. 103, 1. 22. The visit of Onias to the Syrian court seems to 
have been fruitless. 

Second division of the book (iv. 7-vii. 42). Farming of the 
high priesthood, and persecution of the Jews by Antiochtis 
Epiphanes. 

p. 104, 1. 8. 'Jason '= a Grecised form of the Hebrew name 
Joshua. 

p. 104, 1. 10. ' By intercession,' at an interview. 

p. 104, 1. 16. 'And to enroll those living in Jerusalem as 
citizens of Antioch.' The nature of this privilege is not 
known. 

p. 104, 1. 21. On the embassy of Eupolemus, see i Mace, 
viii. 17 ff. 

p. 104, 1. 23. The governments which were according to the 
law, ' the lawful modes of life' (R.V.). 

p. 104, 1. 28. The * hat of Hermes,' the patron god of 
gymnasia. 

p. 105, 1. 7. 'After the call to the game of the Discus ' = 
quoit-throwing. 

p. 105, 1. 20. The amount seems too small (less than ^10), 
and some MSS. read 3300, 



Notes. ^ The Books 



p. 105, I. 20. The Greeks identified the Syrian sun-god, 
Melkarth, with their own Hercules. 

p. 105, 1. 28. Philometor was crowned king of Egypt in 
B.C. 173- 

p. 106, 1. 22. Lit., 'nothing was in due order,' 7.^., he paid 
nothing. 

p. 107, 1. I. Mallos was a coast town in Cilicia. 

p. 107, 1. 2. 'They were given,' /.^., their revenues were to 
be made over to Antiochis. 

p. 107, I. 10. ' Daphne,' a beautiful suburb of Antioch, from 
which it was separated only by the Orontes. 

p. 107, 1. 17. ' Shut up,' shut off=cut off. Cp. ver. 35. 

p. 107, 1. 29. ' His purple.' Cp. I Mace. x. 62 f., which shows 
the obverse side of this picture. 

p. 108, 1. 7. As R.V., 'spread abroad outside,' i.e., in rural 
circles. 

p. 108, 1. 26. ' The son of Dorymenes. ' Cp. I Mace. iii. 
2 Mace. s\\\. 8, X. 12. 

p. 109, 1. 7. ' Followed the matter,' were advocates for. 

p. 109, 1. 19. A sacred symbolic number among the Jews, 
' forty ' was also a favourite round number among Orientals. 

p. 109, 1. 26. In the writings of Josephus and Tacitus similar 
heavenly portents foreshadow great events. 

p. no, 1. 6. Read, 'That good fortune against kinsmen is 
the greatest misfortune.' 

p. no, 1. 12. Or, as R.V., following a different reading, 
' At the last, therefore, he met with a miserable end, having 
been shut up at the court of Aretas.' The Greek text is un- 
certain. Aretas means 'ruler,' and was the title of the Naba- 
tfean kings. 

p. no, 1. 21. ' His kindred.' Cp. I Mace. xii. 21. 

p. m, 1. 5. 'In the conflict'; lit., 'by the pasturage of 
hands,' R.V. , 'in close combat.' 

p. Ill, 1. 13. R.V. omits ' he gave them away.' 

p. 112, 1. 9. 'Garizim ' = Gerizim, the mount on which the 
Samaritans built their temple. 

176 



of Maccabees 5^ Notes. 

p. 112, 1. II. 'Having a malicious mind,' etc. This clause 
should perhaps be connected with ver. 24. 

p. 112, 1. 20. ' To the celebration of the Sabbath,' ' to the 
spectacle' (R.V.). 

p. 112, 1. 22. 'Judas.' The writer makes no mention of 
Mattathias. 

p. 113, 1. 5. ' As they did desire,' 'as they were ' (marg.). 

p. 113, 1. 15. Of such a monthly celebration there is no other 
instance on record ; but it might have been enjoined by a king 
who could even call himself God on his coins. 

p. 113,1. 22. Render, with R.V., 'that they should observe 
the same conduct against the Jews.' 

p. 113. 1. 26. ' Brought up for having.' Cp. i Mace. i. 61. 

p. 114, 1. 4. 'Because they scrupled to defend themselves' 
(R.V.). Cp. I Mace. ii. 32 ff. 

p. 114, 1. 20. Render, 'After short digression we must return 
to the narrative.' 

p. 114,1.27. 'The torment'; lit., the tympanum. On this 
instrument the victim was stretched out like the head of a drum 
previous to being beaten. 

p. 115,1. 12. ' Or rather ' = but still more. 

p. 115, 1. 22. This passage is probably alluded to in Heb. xi. 

35- 

p. 116, 1. 21. The presence of Epiphanes must be considered 
unhistorical. Punishment by burning alive was practised among 
Babylonians, Persians, and even Jews, but usually by means of 
heated furnaces. Cp. Dan. iii. 6 ff. ; 2 Sam. xii. 31 ; Jer. xxix. 32. 

p. 116, 1. 24. After 'that spake first' R.V. adds 'and to 
scalp him.' This is a probable rendering of a participle un- 
translated in A. V. The word literally means dealing after the 
manner of the Scythians, who according to Herod, (iv. 64) 
practised this barbarity. 

p. 117, 1. 3. Perhaps, rather, 'hath mercy on us' (Deut. 
xxxii. 36, Sept.). 

p. 1 17, 1. 15. ' Like a fury,' accursed wretch. 

p. 117, 1. 16. 'Life,' reawakening of life. The doctrine of 
177 



Notes. ^ The Books 



future rewards and punishments, as well as that of a bodily 
resurrection (ver. ii), finds very clear expression in 2 Mace. 

p. 117, 1. 29. ' Ready to die,' about to die. So also in ver. 18. 

p. 118,1. 13. ' For ourselves,' for our own sake. QJ. ver. 32. 

p. 119, 1. 2. * Of his own mercy,' in mercy. Cp. ver, 29. 

p. 119, 1. 6. The word ('phone') has the double sense of 
language (ver. 21) and voice. 

p. 119, 1. 18. ' Her country language,' the language of her 
fathers. 

p. 119, 1. 22. ' Endured the troubles,' etc., fostered thee. 

p. 120, 1. 6. 'Hebrews.' A revival of the ancient name not 
uncommon in this book. 

p. 120, 1. 12. * Without a cause,' ' vainly ' (R. V.). 

p. 120, 1. 16. The passage is difficult. The Greek literally 
means ' short pain of everflowing life.' The pre-Christian use of 
the word covenant in this connection is remarkable. 

p. 120, 11. 27-28. For ' took' and 'put ' read taking, putting. 

p. 121, 1. I. According to 4 Mace. xvii. i, the mother threw 
herself into the flames. 

Third division of the book (viii.-xv.). Rise and progress 
of the Alaccabaaii revolt down to the defeat of Nicanor in 
B.C. 161. 

p. 122, 1. 6. ' Generation of the Jews,' race of Judcea. 

p. 122, 1. 8. As Epiphanes had in B.C. 173 {i.e., seven years 
prevnously) paid the tribute imposed after the battle of Magnesia 
(Livy, xlii. 6), the nature of this tax is unknown. 

p. 122, 1. 14. Taking the talent at ;^240, this would make the 
proposed price of each slave only £2, 13s. 4d. 

p. 122, 1. 18. Translate, ' Informed those that were with him 
of the presence (paroiisia) of the army.' The word was after- 
wards used of the Second Advent of Christ. 

p. 123, 1. 14. An otherwise unrecorded incident, belonging 
perhaps to the war between Antiochus the Great and Molon of 
Media. In any case the numbers are exaggerated. 

p. 123, 1. 26. Here and in x. 19 ' Joseph '= John (i Mace, 
ii. 2, etc.). 

178 



of Maccabees 5«» Notes. 



p. 123, 1. 27. The text is in confusion. R.V. renders, 'And 
moreover Eleazar also : then having read aloud the sacred 
book ' ; but this does not fit what is said about the fourfold 
division of the army (ver. 21). 

p. 124, 1. 14. Having appointed a beginning of mercy for them. 

p. 125,1. 2. ' Philarches.' R.V. renders ' the phylarch,' z'.e., 
probably the captain of an irregular auxiliary force. 

p. 125, 1. 5. Burning alive was apparently not confined to one 
side in this struggle. 

p. 125, 11. 4-21. Curiously enough, Luther did not translate 
vers. 33-36. 

p. 125, 1. 9. ' Most ungracious,' thrice accursed, as in xv. 3. 

p. 125, 11. 24-29. The mention of Persepolis and Ecbatana is 
unhistorical. The temple in question was in Elyniais, and 
Epiphanes died at Tabse in Persia. 

p. 126, 1. 28. ' In an horselitter,' in a litter, which seems to 
have been carried by men (ver. 10). 

p. 127, 1. 24. Athens seems to have been the writer's ideal of 
a free state. 

p. 128, 1. 7. ' Governor,' general. Antiochus would scarcely 
have so described himself. 

p. 128, 1. 12. Omit *or else,' and render ' I am sick. I lov- 
ingly recall your honour,' etc. 

p. 128, !. 28. ' Often.' Antiochus is not known to have made 
any other expedition into the upper provinces. 

p. 129, 1. I. The king's letter to his son is omitted as irrele- 
vant to the writer's purpose. 

p. 129, 1. 12. 'Went into Egypt.' Here the writer is at 
variance with i Mace, and with Josephus. 

p. 129, 1. 19. ' Striking stones,' i.e., so as not to use common 
fire. The interval was not ' two ' but three years. Cp. i Mace. 
i. 54, iv. 52. 

p. 130, I. 16. ' One Lysias.' So designated out of contempt 
Eupator was but a child, and could not have appointed him 
regent, 

p. 130,1.25. ' Departed,' withdrawn. 
179 



Notes. ^ The Books 

p. 131, I. I. Render, ' And together with these the Idumseans 
also.' 

p. 131, 1. II. 'Twenty thousand.' Mere rhetoric as usual. 
Cp. ver. 23. 

p. 131, 1. 22. 'Seventy thousand drachms '=155- talents = 
;^3720. 

p. 132, 1. 3. ' Timotheus.' Probably the Syrian general 
referred to in I Mace. v. 6-8. 

p. 132, 1. 5. ' Asia ' = Upper Asia, particularly Media, which 
was famed for its horses. 

p. 132, 1. 24. 'Two'; /eV., ' the two.' Owing to the article 
and the writer's silence as to the function of the other three, the 
passage is difficult. Some would render, ' And leading on the 
Jews, who also taking ' ; others, * Of whom two led the Jews, 
and (the others) took Maccabreus in their midst.' The text is 
uncertain. 

p. 133, 1. 4. ' Gazara ' = the Jazer of i Mace. v. 8. ' Chereas,' 
or more correctly Choreas, was the brother of Timotheus ( ver. 37 ). 

p. 133, 1. 18. ' Killed Timotheus.' This is a mistake, for he 
again figures in the narrative (xii. 2, 18 ff. ). 

p. 133, 1. 29. ' Gentiles,' Greeks. So also in ver. 24. 

p. 134,1. I. ' Chapels of the heathen,' shrines of the nations. 

p. 134, 1. 5. 'Fourscore elephants.' Doubtless an exaggera- 
tion ; Antiochus the Great had only fifty-four at Magnesia. 

p. 134, 1. 6. ' Bethsura.' See on I Mace iv. 29. It was 
much further from Jerusalem than ' five ' furlongs. Probably the 
text is at fault here. 

p. 134, I. 12, It is not the moral character of the angel, but 
liis protection, that is pointed to in the epithet 'good.' Q>. 
XV. 23. 

p. 134, 1. 28. 'Naked,' z-e., without weapons, having left 
them behind. 

p. 135, 1. 5. Perhaps 'that he would agree.' The Greek text 
IS corrupt. 

p. 135, 1. 16. ' Subscribed.' This must mean either duly 
signed or appended, as at ix. 25. 
lEo 



of Maccabees ^ *'<**®"- 



p. 135, 1. 26. 'Dioscorinthius.' This name (the genitive of 
Zeus combined with Korinthios) does not elsewhere occur, and 
is probably corrupt. The Syriac renders by the second Tishri 
(Marchesvan) = the Macedonian Dius (November). 

p. 135, 1. 28. 'Brother' must be taken simply as denoting 
blood relationship. 

p. 136, 1. 8. Translate, as R.V., ' Choosing therefore that this 
nation should be free from disturbance, we determine.' 

p. 136, 1. 22. 'Xanthicus.' The sixth Macedonian month, 
corresponding to the Jewish Nisan (April). 

p. 136, 1. 25. ' Ignorantly,' i.e., inadvertently. 

p. 137, 1. I. This letter, the names included, must be regarded 
as a pure fabrication. 

p. 137, 1. 19. ' Nicanor.' Probably not to be identified with 
* the son of Patroclus ' (viii. 9, etc.). 

p. 138, 1. 8. 'As if he would return,' 'intending to return' 
(R.V.). 

p. 138, 1. 21. The words ' of Arabia ' should be omitted. 

p. 138, 1. 27. The text is in disorder. Some authorities omit 
the word translated 'bridge ' ; R.V. takes it as a proper name, 
' he also fell upon a certain city, Gephyrun ' ( = ? Gephrun, 
Polybius, V. 70; Ephron, \ Mace. v. 46). Caspis probably = 
Casphon of I Mace. v. 36. 

p. 139,1. 15. ' Characa ' has not been identified. 'Tubieni' = 
Men of Tob ; cp. i Mace. v. 30. 

p. 139,1. 18. 'Before iie had despatched,' ' without accom- 
plishing ' (R.V. ). 

p. 139, 1. 23. The strength of the army of Timotheus is, no 
doubt, greatly overstated. 

p. 140, 1. I. ' Carnion' = Carnaim of I Mace v. 26. 

p. 140, 1. 23. ' Atargatis ' = the Babylonian Ishtar or Nanea, 
the Phoenician Astarte, the Greek Venus. 

p. 141, 1. 6. Sc3'thopolis = Bethshan (i Mace. v. 52). 

p. 141, 1. 20. ' Was still upon,' fastened upon. ' The <r/i/3;«jj 
was a sort of cloak or scarf, fastened round the neck and hang- 
ing loosely behind the warrior' (Rawlinson). 

' O 181 



Notes. ■^ The Books 



p. 141, 1. 25. Marisa. See note on i Mace. v. 66. 

p. 141, 1. 26. For 'Gorgias' most MSS. read Esdris. So 
R.V. 

p. 142,1.4. 'Odollam' = Adullam, probably in the Shephelah. 
Cp. Josh. XV. 35. 

p. 142, 1. II. It is not certain whether these ' things' were in 
the nature of small images or not ; but the circumstance is sig- 
nificant as showing that even those Jews who were fighting for 
the Law were not quite free from heathen superstition. 

p. 142, 1. 23. There is no reason to suppose that Judas 
intended the money to be devoted to making a sin-offering for 
the slain (or as the Vulgate reads, ' for the sins of the dead ') ; 
this is merely the opinion of the writer (ver. 44). 

p. 143, 1. 6. According to i Mace. vi. 20, it was in the year 
150 = 6. c 163-162. 

p. 143, 1. 10. Read, ' a Greek force of footmen,' etc. 

p. 143, 1. 20. 'Of all the mischief.' This might have been 
more fairly said of Jason. 

p. 143, 1. 21. ' Berea,' Beroea = the modern Aleppo. 

p. 143, 1. 24. Translate, ' It had a rotatory instrument which 
on every side shook off (the victim) into the ashes.' 

p. 144, 1. 3. With more probability Josephus {Ant. xii. 9, 7) 
places the execution of Menelaus after the conclusion of peace. 

p. 144, 1. 5. Read, 'To show the Jews the worst that had 
been perpetrated.' 

p. 145, 1. 2. R.V. renders, 'brought down the chiefest ele- 
phant with him that was in the tower upon him.' There would 
thus be a very pointed reference to the Eleazar incident re- 
corded in I Mace. vi. 43 ff. 

p. 145, 1. 19. The statement that Lysias * was overcome ' is 
directly opposed to i Mace. vi. 47. 

p. 145, 1. 21. 'Confounded,' was confounded. 

p. 145, 1. 25. The word here rendered 'principal' is better 
taken as a proper name, ' made Hegemonides governor.' 

p. 145, 1. 26. Gerrhenians = inhabitants, either of Gerrha, on 
the Egyptian frontier, or of Gerar, south-west of Gaza. 



of Maccabees 5^ Notes. 

p. 145, 1. 27. For 'the covenants' read ' the terms.' 

p. 146, 1. 5. Three years, ?.<?., one whole year and part of 
two others. 

p. 146, 1. 7. Tripolis lay to the north of Sidon, and was so 
named because it was founded by colonists from the three cities 
of Tyre, Sidon and Aradus. 

p. 146, 1. 7. According to i Mace. vii. i, 'with a few men.' 

p. 146, 1. 12. By 'the times of the (religious) mingling' is 
meant the period when Onias was ousted from the high- 
priesthood, and the Hellenisers, Jason and Menelaus, were 
installed in the office. R.V. 'no mingling' is not an improve- 
ment here. The reference in ver. 38 to ' the times when they 
mingled not themselves with the Gentiles ' derives its point 
from the contrast to the previously mentioned times of 
mingling. 

p. 146, 1. 18. ' Held his peace ' — from diplomatic motives. 

p. 147, 1. 4. ' Seeing thou knowest,' having acquainted thy- 
self with. 

p. 147, 1. 27. ' Dessau ' is otherwise unknown. Ewald would 
identify it with Adasa (i Mace. vii. 40). 

p. 147, 1. 29. 'Silence of his enemies.' Perhaps, as R.V., 
'consternation caused by his enemies.' 

p. 148, 1. 12. ' The day came,' he (Judas) came. 

p. 148, 1. 20. Nicanor's affection for Judas is incredible. Cp. 
I Mace. vii. 30. 

p. 148, 1. 28. 'The king's successor,' his successor, i.e., suc- 
cessor to Alcimus himself. 

p. 149, 1. 22. This is strange language to put into the lips of 
a man who spoke as represented in viii. 36. 

p. 149, 1. 29. ' Their nation,' our nation. 

p. 150, 1. 6. Suicide of Razis (xiii. 37-46). The writer's ap- 
proval of this act, so opposed to the whole letter and spirit of 
Scripture, is a strong argument against the canonicity of the 
book. As for the story itself, it is doubtless culled from the Jew- 
ish folk-lore of the period, and at most a highly-coloured version 
of some incident of the struggle with the Syrians. 'No true 
183 



Note.. ^ The Books 

martyr for religious truth acts in this way, but only a conceited 
and crazy hero of the stage' (Grimm). 

p. 151, 1. II. According to I Mace. vii. 39, Judas was at 
Bethhoron, which once belonged to Samaria (Neh. ii. 10), 
although in B.C. 161 it is called a city of Judaea (i Mace. ix. 50). 
It is curious that the epitomiser should have overlooked the 
fact that for five years the Jews had been prepared to fight upon 
the Sabbath if necessary. 

p. 151, 1. 27. ' Determined,' had determined. 

p. 152, 1. 6. ' And comforting them.' Probably the idea in- 
tended to be conveyed is that before the battle Judas read 
portions from the Bible ('the Law and the Prophets'). 

p. 152, 1. 12. ' Breach of oaths. ' Cp. v. 25 f., xii. 4, xiv. 
28. 

p. 152, 1. 16. 'As if it had been so indeed,' i.e., a sort of 
waking vision. R.V. omits the clause. There could be no 
dubiety as to Judas having had a dream ; what the writer seeks 
to convey is that it was a vision from God. 

p. 152, 1. 26. 'The lover of the brethren.' Jeremiah seems 
to have been as much revered by the Jews after his death as he 
was unheeded by them during his lifetime. This passage is of 
special interest in connection with the controversy about prayers 
for the dead. 

p. 153, 1. 4. Render, 'The very beautiful words of Judas.' 

p. 153, 1. 12. ' In least account,' in less account. 

p. 153, 1. 15. 'Took not the least care,' had no little anxiety. 

p. 153, 1. 17. 'Trial,' decision. 

p. 153,1. 22. ' Beasts ' = elephants. Instead of 'in wings' 
read 'on the wings.' 

p. 154,1. 12. 'The appearance,' i.e., the miraculous inter- 
position of God. 

p. 154, 1. 15. 'They knew that Nicanor lay dead'; rather, 
'they discovered Nicanor lying dead.' 

p. 155, 1. 2. ' Unto the fowls,' to the birds. The gate of the 
Temple where the arm and hand were hung up was afterwards 
known as ' the gale of Nicanor.' 
184 



of Maccabees ^ Notes. 



p. 155, 1. 6. In reality the Acra was not captured until 
nineteen years afterwards. 

p. 155, I. 12. * Mardocheus' day,' the day of Mordecai (Esther 
ix. 21). 

p. 155,1. 13. Translate, 'It having gone thus, then, with 
Nicanor, and the city having from those times been held by 
the Hebrews, I also will here conclude the narrative.' 

p. 155, 1. 15. The writer does not claim to be inspired. 



i8s 



Geneological Table. 



^ Maccabees 



Table showing the Genealogy and Reigns of the 
Syrian Kings (the Seleucidcs) during the Second 
Century B.C. 



Antiochus III. THE Great (223-187). 



Seleucus IV. Philopator Antiochus IV. Epiphanes 
(187-176). (175-164). 

Demetrius I. Soter Antiochus V. Eupator 
(162-150). (164-162). 



Demetrius II. Nicator 

(145-138 and 128-125 or 

124?) 

I 

Antiochus VIII. Grypos 

(125 or 124-113). 



I 

Antiochus VII. Sidetes 

(138-128). 

I 
Antiochus IX. Cyzicenos 

("3-95)- 



During this period there were many disputes as to the succession. 
The pretender, Alexander Balas, held the throne from B.C. 150 to 
145. In 145-144 Tryphon, one of Alexander's generals, had 
Alexander's infant son, Antiochus VI., crowned as king, but after 
a time he made away with his ward, and himself usurped the 
sovereignty, Demetrius II. being a prisoner in the hands of the 
Parthians. But in b.c 139 he had to retreat before Antiochus VII., 
Sidetes, younger brother of Demetrius II. 



>86 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF 
LEADING EVENTS 

B.C. 

336-323. Reign of Alexander the Great. 

323-176. Reigns of the Diadochoi or successors, down to and 
including Seleucus IV., Philopator. 
176. Attempt of Heliodorus to rob the Temple. 
175. Accession of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes. 
171-168. Expeditions of Antiochus against Egypt. 

168. Massacre of the Jews and desecration of the Temple. 
167. Rise of the Maccabasan revolt. 
166. Death of Mattathias. 

Defeat of the Syrian generals Apollonius, Seron, 
Nicanor and Gorgias by Judas Maccabaeus. 
165. Defeat of Lysias at Bethzur. 

Re-dedication of the Temple. 
164. Death of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes. 
164-163. Relief of Jews in Galilee and Gilead. 

163. Defeat of Judas and death of Eleazar at Bathzacharias. 
162. Death of Antiochus V., Eupator, and accession of 
Demetrius I., Soter. 
c. 161. Battle of Capharsalama. 
161. Defeat of Nicanor at Adasa. 
Embassy of Judas to Rome. 
Death of Judas on the field of Eleasa. 
160. Death of Alcimus, the high priest. 
158. Expedition of Bacchides against Jonathan. 
c. 156. Treaty of peace between Jews and Syrians. 
153. Alexander Balas usurps the Syrian throne, 
Jonathan officiates as high priest. 
187 



Chronologfical Table. ^^ MaCCabees 

152. Struggle for the mastery between Balas and Demet- 
rius I. 
151. Death of Demetrius I. 

150. Marriage of Alexander Balas to Cleopatra at Ptolemais. 
148-147. Invasion of Syria by Demetrius II. 
147. Victory of Jonathan over Apollonius. 
145. Accession of Demetrius II. 

Jonathan aids Demetrius II. against Tryphon. 
c. 144. Generals of Demetrius II. defeated by Jonathan. 
143. Jonathan slain by Tryphon at Bascama. 
Simon succeeds to the leadership. 
143-142. Concession of independence to Judaea. 
142. Simon's capture of Gazara and the Acra. 
141. Simon becomes the founder of the Ilasmonaean dynasty. 
139-138. Civil war between Antiochus VII., Sidetes, and Try- 
phon. 
Defeat of Cendebaeus by Simon's sons, Judas and John 
Hyrcanus. 
135. Murder of Simon and two of &is sons by Ptolemy, his 
son-in-law. 
Escape of John Hyrcanus. 

Note. — To translate any given year of the Seleucid era into its 
corresponding year B.C., it is only necessary to note that the era 
of the Syrian Greeks began with the accession of Seleucus I., 
Nicator, on the ist October B.C. 312. Thus the year with which 
theMaccab^an history begins, viz., 137 of the Seleucid era = B.C. 
175, and that with which it closes, viz., 177 of the Seleucid era 
= B.c. 135. 



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